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#1 2022-05-08 09:01:17

Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 3,418

Xuntian 'Space Sentinel' and mass production of Hubble sized scopes?

I do not believe this subject has been discussed while there are results for the China's Shenzhou, their previous Moon missions, the Martian Rover and Mars satellite, the Chinese Space Station, Asteroid Toutatis, China's manned program, the word 'Xuntian' returns no previous discussion.

Seems to be some kind of Wide multi-spectral Sky Survey Telescope plan with Hubble sized optics?

China Station Telescope

They have not exactly invented anything new, they are just taking the same tools NASA already made but using it in a very different way. China has already tested Telescope observations on the Moon with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) camera during its Chang'e program.
Their Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) also known as Insight is an already launched X-ray space observatory, to observe black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei while Space Solar Telescope (SST) is a planned Chinese optical space solar telescope. The Space Station telescope will soon launch.
“The telescope will be set up in an optical module that can fly independently in orbit… [W]e will make it fly approximately in common orbit with the future space station. This will help us refuel the telescope and carry out in-orbit upgrade[ s ] for it,” … 9bdc0afc40

One of the most-important characteristics of a telescope is its diameter — which limits how much light it can take in at a single time. The main mirror in Xuntian will have a diameter around two meters (six-and-a-half feet) across, roughly the size of the mirror at the heart of the Hubble Space Telescope. However, the CSST will be able to see 300 times as much sky at one time as its older compatriot.

They already tested observation equipment on the Moon so it was only a matter of time before China got into the Space Telescope thing. Perhaps they might build Telescopes that might rival the older Discoveries by NASA, the Europeans and Japanese, however tech is alwasy moving and improving so by the time some other telescope launches it will perhaps be passed by new tech that is more advanced. Chinese Survey Space Telescope or Space Station Telescope (CSST) is a planned Chinese space telescope currently under development. Will feature a 2 meter (6.6 foot) diameter primary mirror and is expected to have a field of view 300 times larger than the 32 year old Hubble Space Telescope. This will allow the telescope to image up to 40 percent of the sky using its 2.5 gigapixel camera over ten years. A wider field of view has Scientific value as surveying effort, it can allow astronomers to catalog many celestial objects and perform multiple statistical analyses on them. Such a telescope could map exo-planet discs, stars, the distribution of galaxies, the properties of stars in our own galaxy and also add to subjects such as dark matter and dark energy in the universe.  T Tauri stars (TTS) are a class of variable stars that are less than about ten million years old. This class is named after the prototype, T Tauri, a young star in the Taurus star-forming region. They are found near molecular clouds and identified by their optical variability and strong chromospheric lines. … r/toc.html
At basic fundamental levels all stars are variable as they evolve and change over time but this is a slow event, from a main sequence to a red giant star as in the Sun's case for example, the Pulsating variables brightness changes periodically expand and contract their surface layers. Nova and Supernova and other type of Variable stars can be watched, another example Eclipsing Binaries. Stars which are Intrinsic variables are stars with changes in magnitude caused by physical processes within the star itself, Eruptive variables are the result of violent changes on the surface of the star, an Irregular Variable Star is a star that differs in brightness with no discernible pattern, a wide scope of surveys makes them ideal for finding foreground objects that move, threats to Earth like NEOs such as Asteroids and Comets. … iable.html

Rapid irregular variable

A rapid irregular variable is a type of irregular variable that changes in brightness by about 0.5 to 1 magnitude for a few hours or days. Unlike Orion variables, which they resemble, they are not embedded in nebulae and must therefore vary due to a different process. … stars.html

Some Orion variables show the presence of absorption components on the redward sides of emission lines, indicating the infall of matter toward the stars' surfaces.

Maybe these types of stars could be a target?

Chinese Survey Space Telescope, also known as the Chinese Space Station Telescope (CSST) and Xuntian Space Telescope, is a space-based optical observatory for astronomers to carry out sky surveys, capturing a general map or images of the sky.

'In 2011, China was prohibited by the United States Congress from participating in the International Space Station (ISS). A range of experiments from researchers from several nations will be carried out aboard the new Chinese space station soon after assembly is finished.'

The CSST is a bus-sized facility with a length equal to that of a three-storied building. It has an aperture of two meters, a bit smaller than the Hubble Space Telescope, but its field of view is 350 times larger than Hubble in area, said Liu Jifeng, deputy director of National Astronomical Observatories Of China (NAOC), in an exclusive interview with Xinhua.
"The field of view is the area of the sky a telescope can see at one time," said Li Ran, project scientist of the CSST Scientific Data Reduction System. Hubble's field of view is approximately one percent of the size of a fingernail at an arm's length, thereby the telescope, in its thirties, observed only a tiny fraction of the sky, Li added.
The CSST, under construction, has a three-mirror anastigmat design that helps it achieve superior image quality within a large field of view, according to the researchers. … 0d2/c.html 

“It can simultaneously perform the photometric imaging and spectroscopic slitless surveys, and will probe weak and strong gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering, individual galaxies and galaxy clusters, active galactic nucleus (AGNs), and so on,” researchers from the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC) describe in a 2019 article.

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2022-05-08 14:49:21)


#2 2022-06-30 11:03:18

Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 3,418

Re: Xuntian 'Space Sentinel' and mass production of Hubble sized scopes?

China announces 2026 mission to scan for nearby alien life; will launch 7 telescopes to the second Lagrange Point (L2) to catalog the nearest Earth-like planets, and then use further missions to scan for biosignatures. … d-earth-20


#3 2022-07-06 17:32:30

Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 3,418

Re: Xuntian 'Space Sentinel' and mass production of Hubble sized scopes?

Introduction … 22.04.yg01
One ultimate goal of China’s space activities is to explore the geospace, solar system, and vast universe, revealing the secrets of the nature. Space science, space technology and space application are three main themes of China’s space activities. Since 2011, The Strategic Priority Program (SPP) on space science, which is under the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has been successfully implemented, the scientific achievements of Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), Quantum Experiment at Space Scale (QUESS), ShiJian-10 (SJ-10) and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), etc. are significantly important and have attracted much attention around the globe.

In order to promote space science in China, CAS launches the selection and deployment of the New Horizon Program (i.e. SPP III) in July 2021, a space science program for the 15 Five-year Plan period. SPP III will carry out cutting-edge explorations and researches on four major themes: the extreme universe, ripples in time and space, the panoramic view of the sun and Earth, and the search for habitable planets, with a vision of achieving major discovery and acquiring new knowledge through original scientific achievements.

The selection of SPP III candidate missions follows “Three Principles” and “Five Persistences”. The former means we must adhere to the principles of giving priority to scientific goals, balanced development of disciplines, and technological and economic feasibility. While the latter emphasizes that we should bind to scientific objectives, top-down selection, scientific output, principle investigator leadership, and openness at home and abroad.

SPP III solicits new mission concepts from research institutes, universities and industries across the country. There are totally 17 proposals submitted before 31 December 2021.

NSSC has conducted the first round evaluation of SPP III mission candidates during 11-13 February 2022. The science mission advising panel was setup and members of the National Space Science Committee and other domestic experts in various fields were invited for the assessment. 13 projects have passed this round of selection. NSSC will carry out a series of specific assessments within the first half of 2022, including overseas assessment of scientific significances, as well as mission profiles on Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), and engineering technology readiness assessment and budget request rationality evaluation. After the above comprehensive procedures, a ranking recommendation of these candidate missions will be given, which will provide solid inputs for the approval of SPP III program by CAS administrations.
2. Brief Description on Candidate Mission Proposals of SPP III

The 13 space science candidate flight missions are categorized into four fields, i.e. space astronomy & astrophysics, exoplanets, heliophysics and planetary and Earth Science, where the exoplanets are actually a newly cut-crossing discipline emerging from traditional science disciplines. Among them, two candidates are large missions, while others belong to medium and small sized missions. The main ideas of the candidates in each field are introduced briefly as followings.
2.1 Space Astronomy and Astrophysics

Space astronomy and astrophysics aim to discover the origin and evolution of the universe and of life itself. SPP III will address the scientific issues in some specific astrophysics science themes, for example, the matter inside Neutron Stars (NSs), the space-time in the vicinity of the Black Hole horizon, and the extremely magnetized vacuum close to magnetars and accreting pulsars. Besides, possible characteristic features of gamma rays and electrons/positrons from dark matter annihilation or decay, the early history of the Universe, etc. are of high interests.

There are 3 space science missions proposed in this field, aiming to address some above mentioned fundamental scientific questions.

(1) Enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry (eXTP) Mission

eXTP will address key unsolved problems of fundamental science: the equation of state of cold ultra-dense matter, the effects of strong-field gravity, and the physics of the strongest magnetic fields in nature. eXTP, which is a powerful X-ray observatory orbiting the Earth at 550 km, can continuously monitor the X-ray sky and enable multi-messenger studies for gravitational waves and neutrino sources. This large mission is led by China with major contributions from some European countries, aiming for liftoff not early than 2027.

(2) DArk Matter Particle Explorer-2 (DAMPE-2)

While DAMPE has impressed the scientific community with its precise measurements of the energy spectrums of cosmic ray electrons, protons and the Galactic Cosmic-Ray (GCR) helium. Its successor DAMPE-2 will hold significant improvements, dedicating to detecting possible characteristic features of gamma rays and electrons/positrons from dark matter annihilation or decay, new spectral structures of GCR beyond 100 TeV, as well as transients associated with events of gravitational waves, tidal disruptions, and high energy neutrinos.

(3) Discovering the Sky at the Longest Wavelength (DSL) Mission

This mission consists of a linear array of micro-satellites placed on a lunar orbit, which will open up a new window of astronomical radio observation at frequencies below 30 MHz, with great potentials for new and unexpected discoveries, and provide new insights into the various astrophysical processes in the planets and stars, the Milky Way, galaxies and supermassive black holes. It will also make high precision measurements of the global spectrum with minimum systematic error, to probe the history of the early Universe, by observing the redshifted radio signal of neutral hydrogen from the cosmic dark ages after the Big Bang, and the cosmic dawn when the first stars and galaxies formed.
2.2 Exoplanets

Exoplanet exploration might be one of the hottest mission types since it encourages us to dwell on the fundamental question “Are we alone?” with some confidence. SPP III will address some scientific issues in this field, including but not limited to: the formation of diverse nearby planetary systems and the emergence of other worlds for solar-type stars. How common are habitable Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars? How do Earth-like planets form and evolve?

In order to answer these scientific questions, there are currently 2 missions proposed for application, both are destined for a halo orbit around the L2 point of the Earth-Sun system.

(1) Closeby Habitable Exoplanet Survey (CHES) mission

CHES is devoted to discover Earth-like planets of the nearby solar-type stars via ultra-high-precision relative astrometry with 1μas precision at 500~900 nm. The major scientific goals are two-folds: to search for the terrestrial planets in habitable zones orbiting 100 FGK stars within 10 pc; further to conduct a comprehensive survey and census on the nearby planetary systems.

(2) Earth 2.0 (ET) Mission

ET is a wide-field and ultra-high-precision photometric survey mission, mainly composed of six transit telescopes and one microlensing telescope. ET is designed to measure, for the first time, the occurrence rate and the orbital distributions of Earth-sized planets, including the elusive habitable Earth-like planets orbiting stars just like a sun.
2.3 Heliophysics

Heliophysics paves the way to understand the Sun and its interactions with the Earth, the solar system and the interstellar medium, including space weather. SPP III will answer some aspirational questions persisted in the field of heliophysics, such as the origin of the solar cycles and solar dynamo. What are the characteristics and dynamics of the solar interior? The outward propagation of the solar eruptions and their impacts on the Earth space environment. How does the global magnetic field distribute and evolve? What is the composition of interstellar gas in our galactic neighborhood and how does it influence the heliosphere and its evolution?

There are currently 4 missions proposed for flight, aiming to advance our understanding the solar activities and their influence on Earth and the solar system.

(1) SOlar Ring (SOR) Mission

SOR is proposed to monitor and investigate the Sun and inner heliosphere from a full 360° perspective in the ecliptic plane. This large mission will deploy three 120°-separated spacecraft on the 1 AU orbit. Solar Ring mission aims to address the origin of solar cycle, the origin of solar eruptions and the origin of severe space weather with necessary in-situ instruments and imagers[4].

(2) Solar Polar-orbit Observatory (SPO)

SPO will directly image the solar poles in an unprecedented way with a spacecraft traveling in a large inclination (≥80°) off the ecliptic plane and a small ellipticity. SPO will unveil the origin of the solar magnetic activity cycle that shapes the living environment of human beings, to determine the generation mechanism of the high-speed solar wind that connects the Sun and celestial bodies in the solar system, and to construct data-driven global heliospheric numerical models which serves as the foundation for space weather prediction.

(3) Earth-occulted Solar Eclipse Observatory (ESEO)

It is proposed to place a solar telescope near the second Lagrange point (L2) of the Earth-Sun system exploiting the Earth’s occultation to explore the inner corona. As a small mission, ESEO might be very beneficial to reveal the early stage of the solar eruptions in the inner corona and subsequently how the Earth's far magnetotail will respond if being “plowed”.

(4) Chinese Heliospheric Interstellar Medium Explorer (CHIME)

This candidate spacecraft, being placed at distances up to 3 AU away from the Sun, might provide the first in situ measurements of pristine interstellar gas and dust in their high-density regions at 2-3 AU from the Sun, as well as global energetic neutral atom images of heliospheric outer boundaries. CHIME will be launched into an elliptical, heliocentric orbit with perihelion at about 1 AU and aphelion at about 3 AU.
2.4 Planetary and Earth Science

The mysteries of our planet Earth and other celestial bodies across the solar system are awaiting unlocking. This understanding serves the fundamental need to improve our lives on Earth, advancing the frontier for all humanity stepping out of Earth. SPP III will address some key issues in the field of planetary and Earth science as follows: how do Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) impact and respond to climate change? what are the spatial and temporal variations of multiscale ocean dynamics? how can we trace the 1 st 10 Million Years Evolution of the Dichotomic Solar System? the geological and thermal history of Venus, the mechanisms of super-greenhouse effect, past and current habitable environments, and the possible existence of life on Venus.

There are currently 4 candidate missions dedicated to address the above questions.

(1) E-type Asteroid Sample Return (ASR) Mission

ASR is aimed to explore the E-type 1989 ML asteroid and return samples collected from up to three sites. Careful investigation of the returned samples will reveal the 1 st 10 Ma years evolution of the nebula under extremely reducing conditions in the inner solar system. It is highly hoped to shed light on the formation of the dichotomy of the solar system through comparison with those acquired from the C-type asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, both formed in the outer solar system. The entire mission will take approximately 4 years to accomplish.

(2) Venus Volcano Imaging and Climate Explorer (VOICE) Mission

VOICE is an orbiting mission of a polar-circular orbit of about 350 km to investigate Venusian geological evolution, atmospheric thermal-chemical processes, surface-atmosphere interactions, and habitable environment and life in the clouds.

(3) Climate and Atmospheric Components Exploring Satellites (CACES)

This small mission consists of two Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO-LEO) satellites in sun-synchronous orbits. It focuses on benchmark climate variables and atmospheric composition observations. CACES promises to provide a deeper understanding of the major challenge in the Earth system science that how GHGs impact and respond to climate change and weather disasters and support the carbon emission calculation in 2028, as well as China’s targets of achieving a carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060.

(4) Ocean Surface Current multiscale Observation Mission (OSCOM)

OSCOM is dedicated to the frontier of ocean multiscale dynamics and energetics based on satellite Doppler oceanography. It will contribute to the study of ocean sub-mesoscale non-equilibrium dynamics, multiscale processes, mass/energy exchanges between ocean and atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change, all of which are implemented through simultaneous observation of Ocean Surface Currents (OSC), Ocean Surface Vector Winds (OSVW), and Ocean Surface Wave Spectrum (OSWS) by a Doppler Scatterometer (DOPS)

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2022-07-06 17:33:26)


#4 2022-07-12 06:11:02

Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 3,418

Re: Xuntian 'Space Sentinel' and mass production of Hubble sized scopes?

China's first solar probe, called the "Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S)" is scheduled to be launched into space in October 2022. It will "perform 24 hour continuous observation" of our star from a Sun-synchronous orbit of 720 km above Earth for at least four years. … 6495967232


#5 2022-07-12 17:29:09

From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,004

Re: Xuntian 'Space Sentinel' and mass production of Hubble sized scopes?

I saw a hubble vs jwst comparison and wow what a difference jswt has for distance....


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