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#1 2019-12-10 07:37:08

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 7,326

Technology Updates

This topic is offered for posting of news about progress in any field of technology that even remotely relates to Mars Settlement.

Because technology can be applied in multiple disciplines, announcements of progress often show up in NewMars forum as part of an ongoing discussion of a particular application.

This topic is available for collection of such updates, when application to more than one topic seems likely.

For the opening of this topic, we have an update to technical standards for Ethernet communication.  The source is a trade journal, and since the purpose of this topic is NOT to promote one commercial activity over another, the name of the source will be provided separately if desired.

Single-Pair Ethernet is Here
A new international standard brings data and power together on one wire to achieve higher data transfer rates. This cabling option serves the needs of cloud computing, the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, and smart technologies across every industry.

The capability described might seem like an obvious development, but achievement of ** international ** agreement on ** anything ** is quite remarkable.

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#2 2019-12-10 08:59:37

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

Technology updates from a newsletter dated 2019/12/10


A cost-efficient process for ethanol-to-transportation fuel stock conversion

A single-step technique for the conversion of ethanol-water mixtures into transportation fuel blendstocks can lower processing costs and shrink the fuel production environmental footprint associated with traditional three-step methods.

Alcohol byproduct may heat homes, filter water

Realizing that European Union (EU) breweries discard roughly 3.4 million tons of unspent grain annually, a researcher is converting the waste food byproduct of barley into carbon that could potentially be used to heat homes, filter water, or barbecue food.

A brewery on Mars is a fine thought indeed!

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Last edited by tahanson43206 (2019-12-10 09:01:04)

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#3 2019-12-10 14:14:55

GW Johnson
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From: McGregor, Texas USA
Registered: 2011-12-04
Posts: 4,576
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Re: Technology Updates

Ethanol is a really high-octane fuel for spark-ignition engines.  If you give up gasoline entirely,  you can use diesel-range compression ratios with it,  which provide substantial increases in overall energy conversion efficiencies. 

It is harder to vaporize than gasoline by about a factor of 3,  and is a bit persnickety vaporizing because it has a single boiling point instead of a distillation curve.  It is nowhere near as volatile as gasoline in the sense that it has lower Reid vapor pressure at room temperatures,  and a different trend with temperature:  essentially no vapor pressure below about 50 F.

It does have a longer effective ignition delay than gasoline.  Which means you run significantly more spark timing advance.  In blend fuels,  ignition timing is not proportional to blend ratio,  it acts like a light switch at about 45% ethanol,  when ethanol suddenly dominates the ignition picture instead of the gasoline.

Below 45% ethanol in the blend,  no engine mods are required to use a blend fuel,  although I do not recommend over 35% ethanol in the blend,  due to cold weather start issues.  Above it,  you switch to 15 degrees earlier timing,  revised mixture ratio (to 9 from 14.5),  and extra heat into the intake to raise vaporization to adequate levels.

Even if you retain gasoline compression ratios,  stiff blends and straight ethanol burn more efficiently that gasoline,  in the same engine.  I usually see about 15% increase in torque and power with straight ethanol over straight gasoline.  That's on the dynamometer,  on the road,  and in flight,  that I have seen that level of efficiency increase.  It's a lot higher than that at higher (diesel range) compression.  Enough to offset the lower gravimetric heating value deficit entirely.

The efficiency increase comes about from a lack of soot in the ethanol flame.  It shows up as cooler hardware and higher efficiency.  There is no soot to radiate waste heat to the hardware.  That energy has to go somewhere,  and it goes into higher output with cooler hardware.  So it says in my PhD dissertation,  backed up by the test data to prove it.

GW

Last edited by GW Johnson (2019-12-10 14:18:44)


GW Johnson
McGregor,  Texas

"There is nothing as expensive as a dead crew,  especially one dead from a bad management decision"

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#4 2019-12-10 18:22:37

tahanson43206
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Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

For GW Johnson re #3

Thank you for your in-depth post on ethanol as a fuel with distinct advantages!

***

Here is an announcement about progress with development of an electric motor powered sea-plane.

This topic has come up in other topics here in the forum.

However, apparently the flight reported is considered a milestone in an effort to obtain flight certification.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/harbour-air- … 58043.html

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Last edited by tahanson43206 (2019-12-10 18:23:45)

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#5 2019-12-10 18:52:48

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 23,096

Re: Technology Updates

SpaceChain sends blockchain hardware wallet technology to ISS

high-altitude-gps-satellite-leo-meo-geo-hg.jpg

"SpaceChain addresses security vulnerabilities for financial systems and digital assets in the growing digital economy. Through integrating technologies, new paradigms that were once beyond reach can now be created and add exciting elements in the New Space Economy."

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#6 2019-12-10 19:03:55

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

For SpaceNut re #5

Thanks! Nice addition to this topic!

***
Here is a report on progress with Small Nuclear Reactors (Small Modular Reactors), with particular emphasis on success in Canada.

In light of the unfortunate (to my way of thinking) ossification of thinking about nuclear power in the United States, I am glad to see that Canada is moving steadily forward on development of much safer designs.   Of course, China and Russia are not inhibited by United States fears, so they are moving rapidly ahead.

I would like to see small reactors as described in the article located to serve communities throughout Canada.  That development would go a long way toward improving the lives of those who live far from the centers of commerce, and toward reducing the use of coal and perhaps even tar-pit oil.

https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/only … 00219.html

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#7 2019-12-12 10:30:34

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

This is a follow up to Calliban's discussion of the Trompe system for compressing gas in liquid.

While Calliban's report started with a very early implementation of the concept, the article at the link below reports on a more recent implementation of the concept, and the article concludes with an update that substitutes centrifugal force for the traditional falling water column.

The rotating concept seems (to me at least) much more likely to find application at Mars, where tall water columns will be few and far between, if they exist at all.

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles … todays-air

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#8 2019-12-12 10:52:31

Terraformer
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From: Logres
Registered: 2007-08-27
Posts: 3,362
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Re: Technology Updates

Home fabricated Integrated Circuit

He's managed to get it to 1975 state of the art. Which means we can have microcomputers, and more importantly, microcontrollers.

Another option for that of course is printed electronics, though they're a lot less powerful (and a lot less expensive). But perhaps enough for the microcontrollers we'd need, so we can keep the expensive chips for our computers.


"I guarantee you that at some point, everything's going to go south on you, and you're going to say, 'This is it, this is how I end.' Now you can either accept that, or you can get to work." - Mark Watney

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#9 2019-12-12 12:12:27

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

For Terraformer re #8

Thank you ** !! ** for this find!

I'm looking forward to finding out what this technology looks like.

I asked Google what operating systems were current in 1975, at:
https://www.thocp.net/timeline/1974.htm

The CP/M(23) (Control Program/Monitor also: Control Program for Microcomputers) will be designed by Digital Research /John Torode and Gary Kildall(24) for the 8080 chip.
In fact it will be the first operating system for that particular micro processor. Many manufacturers of micro computers adopt this system. it has all characteristics of a well designed program in it: it is small and compact, relatively fast and above all stable. The first operating system to run (almost) independent of a platform.

Microsoft DOS was just over the horizon.  That suggests to me that continuing development by the gent you've cited should enable/facilitate OS at that level or the Linux equivalent.

Thanks again!

Edit: This work was done by a high school student! He has since left for college, but indicated he hopes to continue working in future.

The completed project is a set of gates on a chip, so it is a LONG way from a programmable computer, but it certainly does show what is possible when working within the limitations available to him.

A generous donor provided an instrument to assist with testing completed chips.

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Last edited by tahanson43206 (2019-12-12 13:04:59)

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#10 2019-12-12 17:33:59

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 23,096

Re: Technology Updates

The relearning of old tech is how we learn what is lost from the new ways of doing everything. Its what we would call trade craft or trade knowledge both of which is not capture but is learn on the job passed down by the career people that have tenure.

Here is a twist on such a technology...but when it comes to mars we will want to make use of daily sunlight just as much as we will artificial.

Punching holes in opaque solar cells turns them transparent

opaque-solar-cell-compared-neutral-colored-transparent-solar-cell-hg.jpg

Existing transparent solar cells tend to have a reddish hue and lower efficiency, but by punching holes that are around 100 um in diameter (comparable in size to a human hair) on crystalline silicon wafers, it allows light through without coloring. The holes are then strategically spaced, so the human eye is unable to "see" the pattern. The best solar cells on the market have an efficiency of over 20 percent. The transparent neutral-colored solar cell that the research team developed demonstrated long-term stability with a high-power conversion efficiency of 12.2 percent. The next step for the team is to scale up the device to 25 cm2 (3.88 in2) and increase the efficiency to 15 percent. Furthermore, most windows are vertically placed, which causes light to hit the windows at a low angle. When hit by low angle light, the electrical current in conventional cells drops nearly 30 percent, while transparent solar cells reduce less than 4 percent--allowing it to utilize solar energy more efficiently.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.11.008
Research Report: "Neutral-Colored Transparent Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics"

This makes it ideal for solar concentrated light to pass as well as to get the energy from the reflected light. This is a benefit to a natural lighted greenhouse as the panels now become part of the construction and not extra mass to supply energy.

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#11 2019-12-13 15:25:07

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

The article at the link below is about a design for a super yacht that would travel on the surface or (about) 995 feet under the surface.

The Italian designer ** very ** cautiously predicts such a vessel might actually be built within 100 years.

However, I see this as an early indication of what a spacegoing yacht might look like, or at least what it's accommodations might look like.

In fact, I am reminded of a (relatively recent) post by RobertDyck along these lines.  RobertDyck (as I recall) was anticipating accommodations on a large scale vessel for Earth/Mars transit.

https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/luxu … index.html

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#12 2019-12-18 22:40:15

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

The article at the link below reports on "Quantum Dots", which are collections of atoms which have interesting properties.

The article describes speculation that it might be possible to organize these collections into a sort of "periodic table"

https://www.yahoo.com/news/scientists-s … 00549.html

My impression is that at present there is no discernible application for these structures, but the author tries to make a case for keeping an open mind.

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#13 2019-12-19 11:21:06

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Posts: 23,096

Re: Technology Updates

In solar cells the dots are used to control heat but there are many ways to make use of them.

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#14 2019-12-20 15:01:35

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

The "new" aspect of the offering described in the article at the link below is the economics.

Economics is very much a "technology" in an advanced culture.

https://store.hp.com/us/en/tech-takes/r … -a-service

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#15 2019-12-20 17:09:45

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Posts: 23,096

Re: Technology Updates

I have been in the for front of these types of demanning operations to remove the people, risk and pay for the non value adding services to move, transport, to address the item, sending it to where it needs to be at a future state.

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#16 2019-12-21 07:50:56

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

For SpaceNut re #15

It takes a mind shift of some significance, to move out of the victim zone and into the Job Creator mode.

I've been thinking about the concept of a Job Creator over recent days, as the conversation about Poverty in America continues in another topic.

In the beginning of my discussion (primarily with you but occasionally with others such as kbd512) I've been thinking of the Job Creator as an individual who starts a business from scratch and builds it up by hiring staff to amplify the productive efforts needed to create products and services for potential customers, to then find those customers through advertising or word-of-mouth promotion, and finally to manufacture or source the products and deliver them. As growth continues for the successful such Job Creator, additional demands by society impel addition of more staff to handle interactions with governments such as taxes and reporting requirements to be sure the enterprise is not poisoning animals, plants or people, as so many have done in the past.

However, in recent days, I've come to understand that almost inevitably, EVERYONE becomes a Job Holder, and the role of Job Creator transfers to the corporation.  The founder often sells the going entity to an established corporation, and suddenly the person who had been an independent Job Creator becomes a Job Holder like everyone else.

This line of thinking has allowed me to develop more sympathy for your occasional rants against the practices which are observable in the economy we see in operation around the World.  The corporation has a culture, and often that culture is defined by those whose souls are consumed with raw numbers of profit and loss, so that that needs or desires of workers become of lesser or even NO consequence to the corporate leadership.

I'd like this topic to return to its intended focus upon New Technology, and will paste this content in your Poverty in America topic.

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#17 2019-12-21 19:21:48

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 23,096

Re: Technology Updates

I cloned the link plus my response in the other topic....

So far not to many new technologies are coming out but must are a rehash or and upgrade to what was already tried.

Take for instance the solar glass above if you think carefully you will look at how a two way mirror works or a stencilled stain glass window ad works for an automobile or bus. Which allows the observer to see throw in a direction as the light will pass through. Not really new just done differently...

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#18 2019-12-26 22:23:35

SpaceNut
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#19 2020-01-02 13:31:47

tahanson43206
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Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

Lithium batteries are under constant development due to competitive pressures and safety issues. 

Here is an update on the safety side:
https://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy … rizon.html

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#20 2020-01-03 18:48:05

louis
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From: UK
Registered: 2008-03-24
Posts: 6,865

Re: Technology Updates

Interesting announcement by IBM concerning a new type of battery constructed from materials found in seawater.

https://www.ibm.com/blogs/research/2019 … e-battery/

Apparently AI was used to identify the potential chemicals.

Appears to perform better than lithium in almost all respects including energy density.


Let's Go to Mars...Google on: Fast Track to Mars blogspot.com

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#21 2020-01-03 20:26:40

tahanson43206
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Re: Technology Updates

For Louis re #20 ...

Thank you for the link to the IBM research report.

I ** really ** like this unexpected and fortuitous addition to the justification for building wind-to-stored-energy plants at sea, and specifically in the ring-of-wind around Antarctica.

To make product, the facility will have to take in sea water (as well as atmosphere for CO2) and valuable substances can be collected from the intake.  It would appear that these materials would have considerable value, and thus would contribute to the profitability of the facility.

For SpaceNut with an interest in the existing oil wells in the Gulf of Mexico ... the same potential benefit would apply to those, although I expect the volume of wind would be less.

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#22 2020-01-03 21:31:03

tahanson43206
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Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

This post is dedicated to the Vision of void:

The article about IBM research which Louis reported in Post 20 of this topic includes mention of IBM's many years of research at the nanotechnological scale. 

The recent discussion of the JP Aerospace dirigible-to-space concept was in my mind as I read that, and a short time later a connection occurred to yield this voidesque vision:

Given an airfoil in any atmosphere ....

As the airfoil advances, it encounters molecules of gas of various kinds which make up the atmosphere.

On the surface of the airfoil, nanoscale bats whack the molecules down and away from the air foil, imparting energy to the encountered molecule and delivering an equal and opposite force to the vehicle via the framework to which the little batting mechanisms are attached.

This concept differs from traditional passive air foil surfaces, which bounce the atmosphere molecules back in random directions, thus contributing to heating which sums as drag on the vehicle.

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#23 2020-01-06 19:19:36

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

For SpaceNut ...

The link below is from Lizard King of luf.org

It applies to more than one topic, so I'll be posting it where it seems to fit.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/09 … iquid-fuel

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#24 2020-01-10 21:05:15

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

For SpaceNut and others who may be interested in the challenge of offloading Starships on Mars.

In the past, I have investigated an idea first posted here by JoshNH4H, about a pneumatic tower.

While JoshNH4H was discussing launch towers and similar large scale concepts, I was interested in the possibility a 3D printer might be able to make a model of a pneumatic tower.  I completed a design for a scale model of a 40 meter tall telescoping pneumatic tower,  and provided links to the models as posted on Shapeways.com website.

Since then I've had the idea on the back burner.

Wednesday evening, at the local monthly 3D Printer meeting, I met a gent who listened to my little pitch about the telescoping tower, and then connected that idea to an invention he'd heard about.  Today I received a list of YouTube videos that show a metal ribbon telescoping tower. 

It is possible other forum members have seen this invention before, but if they have, they've not mentioned it in the forum (as far as I can tell).

SearchTerm:SpiralTelescopingTower

Begin Quotation from email message:
Here are some links to youtube videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-7b1b2R_Kg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT3xcY1s1kQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNjWkTgMrew

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=801ZII2e3CM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuAAN0FbO8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yW4mbVAXO8k

All of these videos are about 2-5 minutes long.  With some effort I'm sure you can find more.

End Quotation.
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#25 2020-01-12 07:49:57

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 7,326

Re: Technology Updates

There appears to be a prospect of the United States returning to the particle accelerator game.  It is not guaranteed at this point.  Congress could still pull the plug the way it did in Texas.

Still, the use of existing equipment to deliver one of the inputs may reduce cost and construction time.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/us-building- … 00321.html

The title writer took an overly optimistic tone.

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