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#626 2022-03-07 22:30:23

RobertDyck
Moderator
From: Winnipeg, Canada
Registered: 2002-08-20
Posts: 7,321
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Re: Crops

Further to margarine. Parkay brand tub margarine is made with vegetable oil with palm oil and palm kernel oil. Palm oil is from the flesh of the fruit of an palm tree, palm kernel oil is from the pit or seed of the same fruit. But Parkay margarine sticks are made with...

Vegetable Oil Blend (Liquid Soybean Oil, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil), Water, Salt, Contains Less than 2% of the Following: Dried Whey, Vegetable Mono- and Diglycerides and Soy Lecithin (Emulsifiers), Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate (to Preserve Freshness), Natural and Artificial Flavor, Phosphoric Acid (Acidulant), Vitamin A Palmitate, Colored with Beta Carotene (Source of Vitamin A), Flaxseed Oil.

Hydrogenated is a trans-fat. So that's still Ok? That could be easier to make on Mars, and the large ship. If we consume margarine quickly and store in a fridge, we don't need the preservative. If we use turmeric for colour, that also adds natural flavour. Flaxseed oil just adds omega fatty acids. water and salt are required to make an emulsion. So we could make margarine from microbial oil, partially hydrogenated microbial oil, water, salt, dried whey, and lemon juice instead of phosphoric acid. Hydrogenation is done by heating oil to +60°C, and bubbling hydrogen gas over a platinum catalyst. So the next question is where do we get whey? One vegan margarine uses soy milk instead.

YouTube: Hardening Vegetable Oils (Margarine) through Hydrogenation
YouTube: Hydrogenation: transform liquid oil into solid fat

Wikipedia: whey

Whey protein is the collection of globular proteins isolated from whey. The protein in cow's milk is 20% whey protein and 80% casein protein, whereas the protein in human milk is 70% whey and 30% casein. The protein fraction in whey constitutes approximately 10% of the total dry solids in whey. This protein is typically a mixture of beta-lactoglobulin (~48-58%), alpha-lactalbumin (~13-19%), bovine serum albumin (~6%)(see also serum albumin), and immunoglobulins. These are soluble in their native forms, independent of pH.

The amino acid cysteine in whey protein is a substrate for the synthesis of glutathione in the body which is a ubiquitous cellular antioxidant; laboratory experiments have suggested that whey protein and its components might reduce the risk of cancer in animals, suggesting an avenue for future medical research.

Milk Ingredients: Whey Powder

Typical composition for Whey Powder
Total solids 96-97%
Lactose 70-75%
Total protein (N x 6.38) 10-13%

Minerals
Ash 7-12%
Calcium 4500 mg/kg

Vitamins
Thiamine (B1) 0.4-0.6 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 2.3-2.5 mg
Pyridoxine (B6) 0.4-0.6 mg

I find it interesting that typical whey powder has vitamin D removed. Humans require vitamin D for our digestive system to absorb calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. Important D vitamins for humans are vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).

Lactose free margarine sounds like a good idea. So rather than dried whey, we could add whey protein (mainly lactalbumins and globulins), casein, calcium, and vitamin D. A microbial source of casein is a holy grail of vegan food. It's the primary ingredient in cheese. For the large ship, could we just skip whey?

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#627 2022-03-12 18:48:43

SpaceNut
Administrator
From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,353

Re: Crops

Growing Green on the Red Planet

1490407880052.jpg

Radishes grown by scientists at Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands, in (from right) soil from Earth and simulated Martian and lunar soils.

1490736151686.jpg

The 16 Essential Elements Required for Plant Life

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#628 2022-03-14 18:11:46

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 11,375

Re: Crops

The latest MDRS report includes a mention of an experiment to try to grow plants on a rotating turntable ... the experiment failed...


http://newmars.com/forums/viewtopic.php … 77#p192277


About our gravitropism experiment, we wanted to make plants grow on a rotating platform and make daily measures. It was planned in two parts, the first one with a horizontal rotation (the historical “Knight’s wheel experiment”), the second one with a vertical rotation. But we did not succeed in making our seed grow. We tried several times different ways. We do not know exactly why it did not work.

For RobertDyck  ... this is an experiment you can perform at home, if you have a turntable able to operate at 3 RPM.

On the other hand, your current greenhouse design (as I understand it) is independent of rotation, in the sense that solar radiation into the greenhouse is constant.

However, the plants ** will ** be rotating as part of the Large Ship, and it is unknown if plants can "tell" the difference between rotation induced "gravity" and the real thing.  It seems to me that since the experiment could be performed in space for a modest expense, it would be worth doing.

Plants ** are ** (apparently) doing well on the Moon, but ** that ** is NOT a rotating "gravity" field.

(th)

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#629 2022-03-14 20:23:29

SpaceNut
Administrator
From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,353

Re: Crops

crew report can be found here
http://mdrs.marssociety.org/crew-reports/

https://gardenprofessors.com/thomas-kni … ter-wheel/

A turntable for a record player spins at 33 1/3 rpm so what speed was the rotation set to?

https://www.americanscientist.org/article/fortean-flora

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#630 2022-03-15 15:54:14

RobertDyck
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From: Winnipeg, Canada
Registered: 2002-08-20
Posts: 7,321
Website

Re: Crops

tahanson43206 wrote:

For RobertDyck  ... this is an experiment you can perform at home, if you have a turntable able to operate at 3 RPM.

On the other hand, your current greenhouse design (as I understand it) is independent of rotation, in the sense that solar radiation into the greenhouse is constant.

Plants do follow light. Hydroponic operations sometimes mount the light on a track, slowly moving the light from one side to the other over a day. If the light doesn't move, some crops grow straight toward the light. But that's one revolution per day. My setup would have light from mirrors overhead, so light direction won't change. For lettuce, I suggested vertical farming, with a light dispersal system of some sort. So light is not just to plants on the top of the vertical farming rack, but all plants. Since lettuce grows in shade and light in space is more intense than full sun on Earth, it can be distributed.

tahanson43206 wrote:

Plants ** are ** (apparently) doing well on the Moon, but ** that ** is NOT a rotating "gravity" field.

Wait, what? There's something on the Moon? I read about the Chinese landing a small rover, but a plant experiment?

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#631 2022-03-15 19:41:45

SpaceNut
Administrator
From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,353

Re: Crops

The Chinese rover did bring up a plant experiment that only worked for a few days before it was no more.

As far as the hydroponic some other food grow best in it as well as vertical then again we need to focus on the journey have one type of crops while on the planet we can go for longer duration ones.

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#632 2022-04-12 12:06:26

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 4,394

Re: Crops

Synthetic Biology
https://newmars.com/forums/viewtopic.php?id=7292

jfenciso wrote:

The best thing to do is to engineer a bacteria which could convert a martian CO2 into a precursor reagent for rocket fuel. I hope this is possible.



From the Booze thread

Calliban wrote:

Interesting reference on the possible use of microalgae to produce ethanol.
https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/47886

Comparison of yields per acre:

Wheat: 277 gal/acre.
Algae: 5,000–15,000 gal/acre.

We would need to produce a blend of fermented micro algae that results in pleasant flavours that people will enjoy.  But the much greater yield of micro algae and its ability to grow in panels and thin tubes, gives it an enormous advantage over other foods that we might grow on Mars.  And it has the advantage that we can drain it into tanks at night time to avoid it freezing.

One of the key enabling technologies for human colonisation of Mars is our ability to grow micro algae and combine and process these algae to produce foods that are palatable and nutritious.  Without this technology, each human colonist will have to be supported by hundreds of square metres of heated, pressurised greenhouses.  These would be very expensive to produce and energy intensive to operate.  A large part of the estimated 100kW of power capacity needed to support each colonist on Mars would be taken up by food production.  Processed algae avoids almost all of this requirement.  It will be the cheapest way of making food and alcohol.

If the yield estimates above are to be believed, then a single acre of algae panels (40 x 100m) will yield around 20,000 litres of ethanol per year.  That is equivalent to 50,000 litres of standard 40% whisky or vodka or 500,000 litres of beer.

'Chemicals centre on Mars'
https://newmars.com/forums/viewtopic.php?id=6107

Terraformer wrote:

I think we need to have a part of the colony devoted to Pharmaceuticals - though they could be imported from Terra, they may have to wait 2 years to get them, and the demand is unpredictable. I'd prefer to keep them separate from the rest of the chemical processing, since these are intended to actually ingest. We're not talking about massive amounts, so we'll need to have a very versatile production ability. Fortunately, I think a lot of the processes are the same in a lot of what we'd want to produce.

RobertDyck wrote:

Some plants have been genetically modified to produce useful things. For example, cotton has been modified to produce polyester. So the fibre is a cotton/polyester blend as it's harvested from the field, no post-processing required. Some bacteria have been developed to grow like yeast in a vat, and produce various chemicals from the human body that can be sold as pharmaceuticals. For example, human growth hormone. It used to be the only way to get that was to harvest pituitary glands from the brain of human cadavers. It took many pituitary glands to produce enough growth hormone for one treatment. But now a bacteria can be grown in a vat, feeding it water and sugar.

I don't see what role the nanoscale wires do. Cyanobacteria are the original single cell organism to develop a double photosystem. Chloroplasts are organelles in leaf cells; photosynthesis happens there. Chloroplasts are enslaved cyanobacteria; each chloroplast has a single plasmid with 85% of the DNA of cyanobacteria. You can grow cyanobacteria in a vat or a transparent plastic bag. Spirulina is a mass of a certain variety of cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria used to be called blue-green algae, although today cyanobacteria is recognized as a bacterium, while algae is eukaryotic. My point is, why the wires?

' Flow honey - better be'
https://newmars.com/forums/viewtopic.php?id=9410

Health?
https://newmars.com/forums/viewtopic.php?id=7454

Oldfart1939 wrote:

Gravity on Mars is ~ 40% of that here on Earth, which should keep the hormonal control system functioning pretty well. In hindsight, the ISS should have been built to the von Braun "bicycle wheel" model wherein the numbers of gees could be varied for experimental purposes. Why NASA overlooked that possibility astounds me.


Psilocybin Frees Up Depressed Brain, Study Shows
https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61070591
Psilocybin, a drug found in magic mushrooms, appears to free up the brains of people with severe depression in a way that other antidepressants do not, a study has found. The BBC reports:
The results, based on brain scans of 60 people, mean the drug could treat depression in a unique way, the researchers say. Patients with depression are warned not to take psilocybin on their own. A synthetic form of the drug is tested on people in trials under strict medical conditions, with psychological support from experts provided before, during and after it is taken.

With depression, the brain can get stuck in a rut and locked into a particular negative way of thinking, he said. But when given psilocybin, people's brains opened up and became "more flexible and fluid" up to three weeks later. This could be seen in increased connections between regions of the brain when patients were scanned. These patients were more likely to experience an improvement in mood months later. Similar changes were not seen in the brains of people treated with a standard antidepressant.

The results, published in Nature Medicine, are taken from two studies. In the first, everyone received psilocybin; and in the second -- a randomized controlled trial - some were given the drug while others were given a different antidepressant. All participants also received talking therapies with registered mental health professionals. Brain scans were taken before, and then one day or three weeks after taking the therapy.

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#633 2022-08-16 14:27:40

RobertDyck
Moderator
From: Winnipeg, Canada
Registered: 2002-08-20
Posts: 7,321
Website

Re: Crops

I saw this on Facebook - Happy Sandy's Kitchen. I wrote earlier about vanilla extract, but here's a recipe.

Vanilla Extract:
I was asked to re-share how I make my vanilla extract so here it is!
Here's how I make my vanilla extract. At the end I'll give a link to where I buy my Vanilla Beans.
Homemade Vanilla Extract:
3 Vanilla beans for every 8 ounces of liquid - this time I actually used 4 vanilla beans per bottle and each bottle is 8 ounces.
Vodka - you can use any brand - it doesn't have to be an expensive brand. In fact I usually get the least expensive I can find.
Take a sharp knife and cut from almost the top to almost the bottom of the bean - but don't cut through. Scrape the inside a little to get the stuff loosened up a bit
Put the vanilla beans in your jar. I really like these new bottles I just got!
Cover the beans with your vodka. I use a funnel to keep from making a mess!!
Put the lid on your jar, shake it gently a couple of times, and then place in a cool dark place.
Shake it gently every day for a week and then once a week for the duration.
You can use it after 6 weeks but it gets better the longer it steeps. I often let mine steep for 4 or 5 months.
If you want double strength Vanilla Extract just use extra beans.
Just an aside - for the size of these bottles I had to cut the beans in half first so they would fit in the bottles.
That's it folks. These make wonderful gifts that your friends and family will love.
Enjoy!!
I buy my vanilla beans at 'Native Vanilla'. You can get as little as 5 beans for $9.99 - compared to $11.99 for 1 bean at Walmart! The link to their site is https://nativevanilla.com
There's a little drop down thing in the upper left side of the page that allows you to sign up for their emails and get 10% off your first order!
And here's the link to where I got my bottles...
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B08P86M9L7

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#634 2022-08-16 20:15:07

SpaceNut
Administrator
From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,353

Re: Crops

Well What Is Vanilla Bean? how do we grow it?

vanillaforms_getty2400-56a498453df78cf77283281d.jpg

Vanilla is the fruit of an orchid plant, which grows in the form of a dark brown bean pod that is long and skinny. Vanilla orchids are grown in tropic climates, including Mexico, Tahiti, Reunion, Mauritius, Comoro, Indonesia, Uganda, and Tongo. Three-fourths of the world's supply comes from Madagascar. Vanilla is enjoyed throughout the world. The beans are used to add real vanilla flavor to sauce, frosting, syrup, ice cream, beverages, and a variety of desserts.

There was another plant that had a vanilla flavor to it, but it was not a bean from when I was young, but it escapes me now...

Ther flavoring is used in lots of products here on earth but would we be doing the same on mars in time?

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#635 2022-08-17 00:56:01

RobertDyck
Moderator
From: Winnipeg, Canada
Registered: 2002-08-20
Posts: 7,321
Website

Re: Crops

Artificial vanilla extract can be made as a byproduct of processing wood for paper. It can also be made from petroleum. My argument was a small Mars base would not have the industrial infrastructure to do that. For one, Mars has no trees, you would need a pressurized greenhouse to grow trees. You would be better off building a greenhouse to grow real vanilla vine.

Wikipedia:

Chemical synthesis

The demand for vanilla flavoring has long exceeded the supply of vanilla beans. As of 2001, the annual demand for vanillin was 12,000 tons, but only 1,800 tons of natural vanillin were produced. The remainder was produced by chemical synthesis. Vanillin was first synthesized from eugenol (found in oil of clove) in 1874–75, less than 20 years after it was first identified and isolated. Vanillin was commercially produced from eugenol until the 1920s. Later it was synthesized from lignin-containing "brown liquor", a byproduct of the sulfite process for making wood pulp. Counterintuitively, though it uses waste materials, the lignin process is no longer popular because of environmental concerns, and today most vanillin is produced from the petrochemical raw material guaiacol. Several routes exist for synthesizing vanillin from guaiacol.

At present, the most significant of these is the two-step process practiced by Rhodia since the 1970s, in which guaiacol (1) reacts with glyoxylic acid by electrophilic aromatic substitution. The resulting vanillylmandelic acid (2) is then converted by 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid (3) to vanillin (4) by oxidative decarboxylation.

600px-Synthesis_vanillin_4.svg.png

Wood-based vanillin

15% of the world's production of vanillin is produced from lignosulfonates, a byproduct from the manufacture of cellulose via the sulfite process. The sole producer of wood-based vanillin is the company Borregaard located in Sarpsborg, Norway.

Wood-based vanillin is produced by copper-catalyzed oxidation of the lignin structures in lignosulfonates under alkaline conditions and is claimed by the manufacturing company to be preferred by their customers due to, among other reasons, its much lower carbon footprint than petrochemically synthesized vanillin.

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#636 2022-09-07 06:03:51

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 4,394

Re: Crops

Grass species Oryza sativa Asian rice or less common Oryza glaberrima African rice. It feeds most humans of this Earth and agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.


Chinese Astronauts Successfully Grow Rice in Space
https://www.universetoday.com/157453/ch … -in-space/
Rice is one of the world’s staple crops. It is regularly eaten by more than half the world’s population. And now, it’s been grown in microgravity, on board the newly launched Chinese Wentian space laboratory.

Ethanol or Alcohol production, CH3−CH2−OH or C2H5OH  or C2H6O. Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia,  "sake", in Japanese, literally means "alcohol", and the Japanese rice wine usually termed nihonshu 日本酒; "Japanese liquor" the Korean Makgeolli 막걸리, raw rice wine alcoholic beverage, milky, off-white, and lightly sparkling rice wine, Tapuy, a is a rice wine produced in the Philippines and Handia is a rice beer originating from the Indian subcontinent.

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2022-09-07 06:25:04)

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#637 2022-09-07 20:41:27

SpaceNut
Administrator
From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 26,353

Re: Crops

Mars_B4_Moon wrote:

What We Can Learn From Moss — Mosses can grow in space, survive in ice for 1500 years, clean up oil spills, remove arsenic from water, and grow everywhere on Earth. Moss teaches us there are no limits to how versatile an organism can be.

https://www.countere.com/home/what-we-c … -from-moss

Is this something that can be adapted to our diet or is it for another purpose?

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#638 2022-09-22 15:06:38

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 4,394

Re: Crops

I gave an old 'Moss' forum discussion a bump

Space agriculture boldly grows food where no one has grown before
https://www.britannica.com/story/space- … rownbefore

To reach Mars, we need biotechnology
https://www.labiotech.eu/in-depth/biote … ce-travel/

The race to reinvent the space station
https://www.ft.com/content/f50fba1d-5f0 … 5319f9338c

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#639 Yesterday 08:51:19

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 4,394

Re: Crops

How John Deere plans to build a world of fully autonomous farming by 2030
https://www.cnbc.com/2022/10/02/how-dee … -2030.html

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#640 Yesterday 09:17:08

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 11,375

Re: Crops

For Mars_B4_Moon

Re # 639 !!!

Thank you for finding and posting this report!

It is a perfect fit for a mini-project I have in the early starting stage.

(th)

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