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#1 2023-03-15 12:06:46

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News

This topic is available for members who might wish to collect information about the Carnot Heat Engine, and more importantly from my perspective, the interface between random molecular motion which is described by Carnot, and the movements of quantum level objects such as electrons, inside quantum level objects such as atoms.

It is my understanding, (always subject to correction as information arrives), that quantum transitions are NOT subject to Carnot.  Such transitions (apparently) occur with 100% efficiency. 

A solid understanding of both realms may (under the right circumstances) lead to improved performance of designed systems in the Real Universe.

I am inviting Calliban to set the stage for Carnot, with a post showing links to accessible explanations, and perhaps with personal observations to help readers.



#2 2023-05-05 19:18:36

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News … d125&ei=12

The article at the link above offers a high level view of recent quantum research.

Physicists Discovered a Quantum Trick For Reaching Absolute Zero
Story by David Nield • Yesterday 2:00 PM

© Provided by ScienceAlert
The state of perfect stillness known as absolute zero is one of the Universe's impossible achievements. As close as we can get, the laws of physics will always prevent us from hitting thermal rock bottom.

An international team of researchers has now identified a new theoretical route to reach the mythical mark of zero Kelvin, or -273.15 degrees Celsius (-459.67 degrees Fahrenheit). No, it's not more likely to break any laws and remove every last shimmer of heat, but the framework could inspire new ways of exploring matter at low temperatures.

As a consequence of the third law of thermodynamics, the removal of increments of heat energy from a group of particles to cool them to absolute zero will always take an infinite number of steps. As such, it requires an infinite amount of energy to achieve. Quite the challenge.

Classical physics makes this relatively obvious. Viewed in the context of quantum physics, however, the problem begins to look a little different.

Quantum physics describes particles according to a spread of possibilities. Only once a feature is measured does it have a concrete state, and even then, other qualities of the particle become a little less certain. A particle at the theoretical point of absolute zero would have no movement, meaning its position would be certain. Quantum details regarding its prior position would effectively be wiped, deleting information.

Enter Landauer's principle, which states that deleting a piece of information requires a minimum and finite amount of energy.

Does that mean there is a quantum trick to dropping to zero after all?

There are two solutions to the paradox. An infinite amount of time or energy could still be required to make that leap. Or – as per the new research – it would require the deletion of an infinite amount of complexity.

It's this new revelation of the role of complexity that presents a new angle to the search for a pathway to absolute zero, even if it is as practically impossible as a solution as the ones scientists have already been working with.

"We found that quantum systems can be defined that allow the absolute ground state to be reached even at finite energy and in finite time – none of us had expected that," says particle physicist Marcus Huber, from the Vienna University of Technology in Austria.

"But these special quantum systems have another important property: they are infinitely complex."

What we now have is essentially a 'quantum version' of the third law of thermodynamics that goes beyond what classical physics teaches us: an infinite amount of energy, time, or complexity is required to get to absolute zero.

The calculations and modeling carried out by the team also show that the perfect erasure of data and the lowest possible temperature are closely linked, and both apparently impossible to achieve by we mere mortals.

It's possible then that increasing complexity in systems is another way of getting closer to absolute zero, or at least proceeding more quickly.

"If you want to perfectly erase quantum information in a quantum computer, and in the process transfer a qubit to a perfectly pure ground state, then theoretically you would need an infinitely complex quantum computer that can perfectly control an infinite number of particles," says Huber.

In practical terms, no computer system is ever perfect – so the idea that a particle in a quantum computer could never be fully wiped of its data (or previous states) shouldn't be a stumbling block in the development of these technologies.

Quantum mechanics and temperature are closely related – when we get close to absolute zero, strange quantum phenomena start happening – and the researchers say that this is another area where the findings of this study can be useful in the future.

"This is precisely why it is so important to better understand the connection between quantum theory and thermodynamics," says Huber. "There is a lot of interesting progress in this area at the moment. It is slowly becoming possible to see how these two important parts of physics intertwine."

The research has been published in PRX Quantum.

Despite the teaser, the bottom line is you ** still ** can't reach absolute zero.



#3 2023-07-29 10:40:31

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News … c49d&ei=32

Here is a shorter link to what appears to be the same story: … anglement/

The Premier Daily
Brain experiment suggests that consciousness relies on quantum entanglement
Story by Julie Hambleton • Yesterday 2:41 PM

The Premier Daily

Brain experiment suggests that consciousness relies on quantum entanglement

Brain experiment suggests that consciousness relies on quantum entanglement
© Provided by The Premier Daily

Ask a neuroscientist, and they will tell you this: We still know very little about the brain; how it functions, how it functions, etc. Up until now, the belief was that the brain is a classical system. This new research out of Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, challenges that. Their research shows that quantum entanglement may, in fact, be at work in our brains.

Quantum Computation and the Enigma of Brain Entanglement
In a groundbreaking study conducted by scientists at Trinity College Dublin, a remarkable connection between the mysteries of quantum computation, or gravity, and the intricate workings of our brains has been unearthed. Utilizing a revolutionary technique to test for quantum gravity, the researchers have postulated that the phenomenon of entanglement might be at play within our very own minds. This discovery holds immense implications for our understanding of consciousness, cognition, and the fabric of reality itself. (1)

Unraveling Quantum Gravity
Quantum gravity, an elusive concept that lies at the intersection of quantum mechanics and general relativity, has long been considered the holy grail of modern physics. While quantum mechanics describes the micro world of atoms and subatomic particles, general relativity provides a framework for understanding gravity on a macroscopic scale. However, these two pillars of physics have proven to be fundamentally incompatible, leaving scientists with an enigmatic puzzle to solve.

To further probe the depths of quantum gravity, the researchers at Trinity College Dublin devised an ingenious technique. By harnessing the power of high-energy particle collisions and sophisticated measurement equipment, they aimed to detect potential quantum gravitational effects on a macroscopic level.

“We adapted an idea, developed for experiments to prove the existence of quantum gravity, whereby you take known quantum systems, which interact with an unknown system. If the known systems entangle, then the unknown must be a quantum system, too. It circumvents the difficulties to find measuring devices for something we know nothing about," said Dr. Christian Kerskens, co-author of the study and lead physicist at the Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience.“For our experiments we used proton spins of ‘brain water’ as the known system. ‘Brain water’ builds up naturally as fluid in our brains and the proton spins can be measured using MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Then, by using a specific MRI design to seek entangled spins, we found MRI signals that resemble heartbeat evoked potentials, a form of EEG signals. EEGs measure electrical brain currents, which some people may recognize from personal experience or simply from watching hospital dramas on TV.” (2)

The Intriguing Role of Entanglement
Entanglement, an extraordinary phenomenon in quantum mechanics, occurs when two or more particles become correlated and share a dependent state regardless of the distance between them. This unique property has left scientists fascinated, with many pondering the extent of its reach in the macroscopic world.

Building upon the notion that entanglement might extend beyond the realm of quantum mechanics, the Trinity College Dublin researchers have proposed a profound hypothesis. What if entanglement is not confined to the microscopic scale but also plays a critical role within the human brain?

Quantum Entanglement and Consciousness
It has long been suspected that consciousness, our subjective experience of the world, arises from the intricate interactions within our brain. But understanding the exact nature of consciousness has remained an enigma, with numerous theories vying for dominance.

The suggestion that quantum entanglement might be at work in our brains provides a captivating new perspective. Imagine the countless neural connections in our brain acting in unison through entanglement, leading to the emergence of consciousness. This hypothesis opens up a deeper understanding of the mysteries of the mind and the interconnectedness of the universe.

Read: Mind-blowing Experiments Say That Reality Doesn't Exist If You Are Not Looking at It

Bridging the Gap: Neuroscience and Quantum Mechanics
To comprehend the potential quantum entanglement within our brains, we must bridge the gap between the fields of neuroscience and quantum mechanics. The Trinity College Dublin researchers propose that specific neural processes generate highly entangled states within our brain, paving the way for conscious experiences.

Furthermore, recent advancements in neuroscience have unveiled evidence of coherent neural oscillations, suggesting that synchronous activity between different brain regions plays a vital role in cognition. Could it be that entanglement is responsible for maintaining these coherence patterns and facilitating the integration of information?

Consciousness: A Quantum Orchestra
Drawing parallels between the symphony of coherent neural activity and the harmonious dance of entangled particles in quantum systems, the researchers propose an analogy. Just as an orchestra requires synchrony and coordination among its musicians to create a captivating melody, consciousness might arise from the orchestrated interplay of entangled brain states.

Implications and Future Directions
The implications of this groundbreaking research are monumental. If entanglement indeed plays a role in our brains, it challenges the conventional wisdom that consciousness solely emerges from classical biological processes. It also hints at the possibility of a deeper connection between our minds and the fundamental fabric of reality.

Further studies are needed to delve deeper into the intricacies of brain entanglement and its relationship with consciousness. It will require interdisciplinary collaboration between physicists, neuroscientists, and philosophers to explore this captivating frontier of knowledge.

The Bottom Line

The exploration of quantum gravity and the suggestion of entanglement at work within our brains represent a convergence of science and philosophy. The researchers at Trinity College Dublin have opened Pandora’s box of profound questions and potential answers, shedding light on the interplay between quantum phenomena and the extraordinary realms of human consciousness.

As we continue to unravel the mysteries of quantum gravity and delve deeper into the enigma of brain entanglement, we move closer to comprehending the essence of our own existence and the true nature of reality itself.

Keep Reading: Scientific ex



#4 2023-12-23 14:15:20

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News

For SpaceNut ... we only have two topics that contain the word "quantum"....

This post seems like a reasonable fit for this topic ... it ** definitely ** involves quantum physics ..
The subject of the report is an advance in understanding of superconductivity, although the work seems to raise plenty of questions ... … 10548.html

Tom's Hardware
U.S. Govt and researchers seemingly discover new type of superconductivity in an exotic, crystal-like material — controllable variation breaks temperature records

Francisco Pires
Fri, December 22, 2023 at 11:15 AM EST·4 min read

Superconductor image.

A group of physicists from the University of Washington and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have seemingly discovered a new, controllable variation of superconductivity in an exotic, crystal-like material. Its superconductivity can be modulated according to the strain applied to it, to the point of turning it off at will. Simultaneously, they've apparently broken the record on how "hot" a field-effect superconductor can be before it loses its ability to conduct electricity, absent any resistance.

What's a Superconductor?

LK-99 room-temperature levitating superconductor.

Superwhat? Here's what you need to know about superconductors, how they work, and why they're key to PCs.

The time hasn't yet come for the room-temperature, ambient-pressure superconductor, but a temperature record is a temperature record, even if it's (still) around the 10 K barrier (-263.5 ºC).

The research paper (published in Science Advances) describes a synthetic, crystal-like sandwich of both ferromagnetic (Europium) and superconductive materials (Iron Arsenide), which showcase emergent superconductivity when placed in the proximity of a strong enough magnetic field. Doped EuFe2As2, as the material is called due to the addition of Cobalt molecules to the synthesis process, takes advantage of Europium's (Eu) strong ferromagnetism, alternated with superconducting/nematic FeAs (Iron Arsenide) layers in a sandwich-like configuration.

The result is what's known as a field-tunable superconductor -- one whose superconductivity features can be enabled through the application of external magnetic fields. In the case of doped EuFe2As2 (and by deploying specialized equipment alongside a combination of X-ray techniques), the research team showed how a properly aligned external magnetic field counterbalances the magnetic fields emanating from the ferromagnetic Europium layers. This allows them to be reoriented - and once the originally chaotic magnetic fields are parallel to the superconducting ones, a zero-resistance state of matter emerges.

But doped EuFe2As2 has another secret: its superconducting capabilities can be turned off even in a strong enough magnetic field. All that's needed is to strain the material with a cryogenic strain cell - to apply pressure from a single side (uniaxially)  with what's akin to an industrial, scientific-measurements-certified piston -- to modulate how much resistance electrons find while traversing it. Under certain strain levels, the superconductivity of the synthetic material can be boosted enough so that an external magnetic field isn't required to enable a superconductive state. But after a point, not even pressure gets the engines going. Two different mechanisms for superconductivity can only go so far, but they also open up several opportunities in customizing superconductivity -- an additional lever to pull.

A descriptor of the superconducting processes.

The researchers noted difficulties in their synthesis process despite the overwhelming quality of documentation (they did it themselves, after all). The research team wasn't able to discern what prevented viable samples of Cobalt-doped EuFe2As2 from resulting from the synthesis process; instead, they reported "substantial sample to sample variability," where variability refers to whether the samples presented field-induced superconductivity or not. The researchers further noted the difficulties likely arose in the Cobalt doping stage of the recipe, a confirmation of how difficult it is to control quantum processes (such as chemical reactions) at the level of precision some of these synthetic materials that are bearers of superconductivity require.

These are subtle, subatomic element changes and interactions -- that's truly all that's required for morphing a material from semiconductivity to superconductivity. But that simpleness hides a complex interaction of elements, particles and subatomic particles, spins, magnetic fields, and many more parameters in a way that's just right - or in the case of the researcher's samples, between 4 Kelvin and 10 Kelvin of rightness.

This level of resolution and control into the moment superconductivity gets "turned off" (which is the same as the moment it gets "turned on" but different, in a very quantum way) should provide invaluable insights into the quantum physics of superconducting. At the very least, the newly discovered superconductor can be a testbed for a better understanding of superconductivity itself -- being able to see the molecular transition from normal matter to its superconductive phase at higher and higher resolutions should increase our ability to control the effect and extract further usefulness from it.

And if anything, the book in condensed matter physics still has several blank pages to pour discoveries onto, this novel superconducting mechanism included. Not that it's hard to imagine places where perfectly-conducting circuits that never heat up would be great: Argonne National Labs states that this discovery could "find uses in superconducting circuits for next-generation industrial electronics." I'll take a Ryzen 15 Super Cooper, please.

View comments (8)

One take-away for me is that "room temperature" super-conductivity is still a ways off.



#5 2023-12-24 16:13:52

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News … 56433.html

The article at the link above provides an overview of quantum effects, and intoduces consideration of their effects in biological systems.

The Conversation
Quantum physics proposes a new way to study biology – and the results could revolutionize our understanding of how life works
Clarice D. Aiello, University of California, Los Angeles
Sat, December 23, 2023 at 10:17 AM EST·6 min read

Looking at life at the atomic scale offers a more comprehensive understanding of the macroscopic world. <a href="" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" data-ylk="slk:theasis/E+ via Getty Images;elm:context_link;itc:0" class="link rapid-noclick-resp">theasis/E+ via Getty Images</a>

Imagine using your cellphone to control the activity of your own cells to treat injuries and disease. It sounds like something from the imagination of an overly optimistic science fiction writer. But this may one day be a possibility through the emerging field of quantum biology.

Over the past few decades, scientists have made incredible progress in understanding and manipulating biological systems at increasingly small scales, from protein folding to genetic engineering. And yet, the extent to which quantum effects influence living systems remains barely understood.

Quantum effects are phenomena that occur between atoms and molecules that can’t be explained by classical physics. It has been known for more than a century that the rules of classical mechanics, like Newton’s laws of motion, break down at atomic scales. Instead, tiny objects behave according to a different set of laws known as quantum mechanics.

For humans, who can only perceive the macroscopic world, or what’s visible to the naked eye, quantum mechanics can seem counterintuitive and somewhat magical. Things you might not expect happen in the quantum world, like electrons “tunneling” through tiny energy barriers and appearing on the other side unscathed, or being in two different places at the same time in a phenomenon called superposition.

I am trained as a quantum engineer. Research in quantum mechanics is usually geared toward technology. However, and somewhat surprisingly, there is increasing evidence that nature – an engineer with billions of years of practice – has learned how to use quantum mechanics to function optimally. If this is indeed true, it means that our understanding of biology is radically incomplete. It also means that we could possibly control physiological processes by using the quantum properties of biological matter.

Quantumness in biology is probably real

Researchers can manipulate quantum phenomena to build better technology. In fact, you already live in a quantum-powered world: from laser pointers to GPS, magnetic resonance imaging and the transistors in your computer – all these technologies rely on quantum effects.

In general, quantum effects only manifest at very small length and mass scales, or when temperatures approach absolute zero. This is because quantum objects like atoms and molecules lose their “quantumness” when they uncontrollably interact with each other and their environment. In other words, a macroscopic collection of quantum objects is better described by the laws of classical mechanics. Everything that starts quantum dies classical. For example, an electron can be manipulated to be in two places at the same time, but it will end up in only one place after a short while – exactly what would be expected classically.

In a complicated, noisy biological system, it is thus expected that most quantum effects will rapidly disappear, washed out in what the physicist Erwin Schrödinger called the “warm, wet environment of the cell.” To most physicists, the fact that the living world operates at elevated temperatures and in complex environments implies that biology can be adequately and fully described by classical physics: no funky barrier crossing, no being in multiple locations simultaneously.

Chemists, however, have for a long time begged to differ. Research on basic chemical reactions at room temperature unambiguously shows that processes occurring within biomolecules like proteins and genetic material are the result of quantum effects. Importantly, such nanoscopic, short-lived quantum effects are consistent with driving some macroscopic physiological processes that biologists have measured in living cells and organisms. Research suggests that quantum effects influence biological functions, including regulating enzyme activity, sensing magnetic fields, cell metabolism and electron transport in biomolecules.

How to study quantum biology

The tantalizing possibility that subtle quantum effects can tweak biological processes presents both an exciting frontier and a challenge to scientists. Studying quantum mechanical effects in biology requires tools that can measure the short time scales, small length scales and subtle differences in quantum states that give rise to physiological changes – all integrated within a traditional wet lab environment.

In my work, I build instruments to study and control the quantum properties of small things like electrons. In the same way that electrons have mass and charge, they also have a quantum property called spin. Spin defines how the electrons interact with a magnetic field, in the same way that charge defines how electrons interact with an electric field. The quantum experiments I have been building since graduate school, and now in my own lab, aim to apply tailored magnetic fields to change the spins of particular electrons.

Research has demonstrated that many physiological processes are influenced by weak magnetic fields. These processes include stem cell development and maturation, cell proliferation rates, genetic material repair and countless others. These physiological responses to magnetic fields are consistent with chemical reactions that depend on the spin of particular electrons within molecules. Applying a weak magnetic field to change electron spins can thus effectively control a chemical reaction’s final products, with important physiological consequences.

Currently, a lack of understanding of how such processes work at the nanoscale level prevents researchers from determining exactly what strength and frequency of magnetic fields cause specific chemical reactions in cells. Current cellphone, wearable and miniaturization technologies are already sufficient to produce tailored, weak magnetic fields that change physiology, both for good and for bad. The missing piece of the puzzle is, hence, a “deterministic codebook” of how to map quantum causes to physiological outcomes.

In the future, fine-tuning nature’s quantum properties could enable researchers to develop therapeutic devices that are noninvasive, remotely controlled and accessible with a mobile phone. Electromagnetic treatments could potentially be used to prevent and treat disease, such as brain tumors, as well as in biomanufacturing, such as increasing lab-grown meat production.

A whole new way of doing science

Quantum biology is one of the most interdisciplinary fields to ever emerge. How do you build community and train scientists to work in this area?

Since the pandemic, my lab at the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Surrey’s Quantum Biology Doctoral Training Centre have organized Big Quantum Biology meetings to provide an informal weekly forum for researchers to meet and share their expertise in fields like mainstream quantum physics, biophysics, medicine, chemistry and biology.

Research with potentially transformative implications for biology, medicine and the physical sciences will require working within an equally transformative model of collaboration. Working in one unified lab would allow scientists from disciplines that take very different approaches to research to conduct experiments that meet the breadth of quantum biology from the quantum to the molecular, the cellular and the organismal.

The existence of quantum biology as a discipline implies that traditional understanding of life processes is incomplete. Further research will lead to new insights into the age-old question of what life is, how it can be controlled and how to learn with nature to build better quantum technologies.

This article is republished from The Conversation, a nonprofit, independent news organization bringing you facts and trustworthy analysis to help you make sense of our complex world.Like this article? Subscribe to our weekly newsletter.

It was written by: Clarice D. Aiello, University of California, Los Angeles.

Read more:



#6 2024-02-06 20:42:50

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News

On the general theme of Quantum Physics, here is an article about research that explores a facet of Quantum Physics that is on the speculative side.  I am hoping it will be interesting to NewMars members, and perhaps thought inspiring... … 7602&ei=30

Present-day engines operate based on one of two principles. Power-heat engines, which include all internal combustion engines, steam engines, and rocket engines, convert heat into power. During a controlled explosion in a combustion chamber, energy is released in the form of heat and pressure, which moves a piston that applies a force. Multiple pistons moving at different times generate a rotary motion.

Electric drives rely on the interaction between electric and magnetic fields. By moving an electric field, a counter-pole is moved and exerts a force. In most use cases, this is an electric rotating field that stimulates an axis to rotate.

Now, a whole new type of engine could be entering the game. A group of researchers at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern-Landau is developing a drive based on an as-yet-unused principle, quantum mechanics, as reported by the science magazine This would use neither electricity nor fuels.

Quantum states as energy suppliers

The scientific team, led by Jennifer Koch, uses the properties of elementary particles for its concept. These belong either to the group of bosons or to the fermions, which form matter. Fermions include electrons and quarks, the basic building blocks of atoms. These tend to repel each other, as they cannot occupy the same quantum state. This effect is known as the Pauli Principle and is the reason for the shell structure of atoms.

In contrast to these are the bosons, the particles that generate and transmit force. Electromagnetic forces are conveyed by photons, while gluons convey strong nuclear force, such as is responsible for the cohesion within an atomic nucleus. Unlike fermions, bosons accumulate together and all take on the lowest energy state.

The effect that physicist Koch and her colleagues are utilizing is as follows: When two fermions are connected, such as by a cleverly applied magnetic field, the particle duo behaves like a boson. In practice, the scientists cool lithium atoms, which are by definition fermions, to almost 0 Kelvin (minus 523.67 degrees Fahrenheit). Due to the Pauli Principle, only one atom occupies the lowest energy state. Additional atoms must occupy a state in which they contain more energy. The researchers then couple these fermions together, and the resulting pairs all fall to the lowest energy level, since they behave like bosons. This effect releases energy that could be used for a possible quantum motor.

Quantum motor is still science fiction

In a laboratory environment, the researchers have already generated this effect, thus proving its function. The cycle process developed has an efficiency of 25 percent. That might sound low at first, but a combustion process with diesel fuel has an efficiency of only 20 percent. The quantum motor is therefore already showing immense potential in its earliest test phase. However, the world will likely have to wait several more years before it can be applied to a product.

This article was published in cooperation with

NewMars readers will note the low value given for the efficiency of diesel motors....

I asked Google for a range of efficiency of diesel motors, and it came back with much higher values:


Theoretical system efficiencies for diesel engines range from 55-60%. For reference, the best power stations run at 50-55% efficiency and fuel cells are more than 50% efficient, so diesel engines can be incredibly efficient. › news › diesel-engines-most-fuel-efficient
Which diesel engines most fuel efficient? | FAWDE

The Wikipedia article on diesel engines does report that in the earliest versions, efficiency was as low as 16.6%.  Improvements made since then have allowed much higher performance.

The Quantum "motor" described in the article apparently requires near-Absolute-Zero conditions, so it is difficult (for me at least) to imagine a large scale application.




#7 2024-02-07 10:27:09

GW Johnson
From: McGregor, Texas USA
Registered: 2011-12-04
Posts: 5,451

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News

The Carnot "engine" is a classical thermodynamics notion that has nothing to do with molecules,  atoms,  or quantum anything.  What it tells you is what an upper bound is,  on the efficiency of any heat engine,  which is operating on some sort of thermodynamic cycle between two temperatures. It  tells you that based solely on those two temperatures.  One is the driving source temperature from which your energy comes,  the other is the sink temperature to which you send your waste heat.


Last edited by GW Johnson (2024-02-07 10:28:28)

GW Johnson
McGregor,  Texas

"There is nothing as expensive as a dead crew,  especially one dead from a bad management decision"


#8 2024-03-20 18:23:06

Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,005

Re: Carnot Heat Engine - Quantum Physics.- Related News

Here is an update on developments at the quantum scale: … 20.03.24_3

Researchers have turned to quantum dots to clean water pollutants.

Chemical waste, such as dyes and pesticides, is becoming an increasingly serious problem, frequently ending up in water bodies.

Removing pesky chemical waste particles may prove difficult with current methods, which is where the concept of using quantum dots comes in.

The enigmatic laws of quantum physics govern quantum dots.




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