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#176 2023-12-24 11:36:52

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

The ALPHA-g experiment: Exploring gravity's impact on antimatter
https://interestingengineering.com/scie … tter-alpha

Searching for axions with the ATLAS detector
https://phys.org/news/2023-12-axions-at … ector.html

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#177 2023-12-28 13:19:32

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,126

Re: Physics Topics

In the table below, ChatGPT4 reports the effect of delivery of 20,000 joules per second to a container of 100 liters of water, starting at 0 degrees Celsius as a liquid, and rising to just below boiling.

User
Thank you!  The table is nearly ready for presentation!  Please add a title: Temperature rise of 100 liters of water, and under the table, please add an explanation: Adding 20,000 joules per second to 100 liters of water. Finally, please note that the water is liquid at all points in the process.

ChatGPT
Here's the finalized table with the requested title, explanation, and note:

Title: Temperature Rise of 100 Liters of Water

Time (seconds)  |  Time (minutes)  |  Temperature (°C)
-------------------------------------------------------
0                  |  0.00             |  0.0
209              |  3.48             |  9.99
418              |  6.97             |  19.97
627              |  10.45           |  29.96
836              |  13.93           |  39.94
1045            |  17.42           |  49.93
1254            |  20.90           |  59.91
1463            |  24.38           |  69.90
1672            |  27.87           |  79.89
1881            |  31.35           |  89.87
2090            |  34.83           |  99.86

Explanation: Adding 20,000 joules per second to 100 liters of water.

Note: The water remains in a liquid state throughout the entire process.

This table clearly shows the gradual increase in temperature of 100 liters of water as a result of continuously adding 20,000 joules of energy per second. It's important to note that the water stays in its liquid form during the entire heating process, up to near boiling temperatures.

(th)

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#178 2023-12-28 13:26:15

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,126

Re: Physics Topics

I asked ChatGPT4 to revise the layout so the numbers in column 1 are right aligned...

Time (seconds)  |  Time (minutes)  |  Temperature (°C)
-------------------------------------------------------
             0    |  0.00            |  0.0
           209  |  3.48            |  9.99
           418  |  6.97            |  19.97
           627  |  10.45           |  29.96
           836  |  13.93           |  39.94
          1045  |  17.42           |  49.93
          1254  |  20.90           |  59.91
          1463  |  24.38           |  69.90
          1672  |  27.87           |  79.89
          1881  |  31.35           |  89.87
          2090  |  34.83           |  99.86

I wonder if ChatGPT4 can improve the format of the output even further.

ChatGPT4 confirmed that NewMars FluxBB is using proportional font instead of the fixed width font used by ChatGPT4 for the table.

Here is another attempt to compensate for the proportional font:

Time (seconds) | Time (minutes) | Temperature (°C)
-------------------------------------------------
            0  |            0.00 |              0.0
          209  |            3.48 |             9.99
          418  |            6.97 |            19.97
          627  |           10.45 |            29.96
          836  |           13.93 |            39.94
         1045  |           17.42 |            49.93
         1254  |           20.90 |            59.91
         1463  |           24.38 |            69.90
         1672  |           27.87 |            79.89
         1881  |           31.35 |            89.87
         2090  |           34.83 |            99.86

(th)

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#179 2024-01-18 15:16:19

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

The making of early modern eye models
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/ … .2023.0020

The making of early modern eye models

Wenrui Zhao

Published:15 November 2023 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsnr.2023.0020

Abstract

Anatomical eye models became increasingly popular in the seventeenth century across Europe. They served as useful pedagogical tools, allowing the hands-on study of ocular anatomy and repeated re-enactment of the dissection process, while also being appreciated for their workmanship and aesthetics. Their makers included surgeons, anatomists and artisans, and they often collaborated to produce these artefacts. Comprising materials such as ivory, horn, glass and leather, the components of the model aimed to recreate and stand in for bodily surfaces and textures. This article takes the materiality of the eye model as the starting point from which to explore the role of material-based expertise and insights in producing knowledge of the body. The model encapsulated a conceptualization shared across surgical and artisanal practices that the body was a kind of material, equivalent to the matter craftsmen worked with. It enabled engagement with the body as material and encouraged a re-evaluation of sensory literacy, fostering a way of seeing that also entailed touching.


Scientists at Google DeepMind have created artificial intelligence software able to solve difficult geometry proofs used to test high school students in the International Mathematical Olympiad.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-023-06747-5


Researchers Generate Next-Generation, Cobalt-Free Batteries
https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/n … ies-382916

Past prototypes couldn’t match the energy output and stability of traditional lithium-ion batteries.

Meet Helios, a new class of space tug with some real muscle
https://arstechnica.com/space/2024/01/m … al-muscle/
"Just give us a sip. We'll take our 14 tons and we'll be glad to pay for it."


Supernova Study Shows Dark Energy May Be More Complicated Than We Thought
https://singularityhub.com/2024/01/12/s … e-thought/


Here's how a galaxy with no dark matter could prove dark matter exists
https://interestingengineering.com/scie … ter-exists
In an interview with IE, astronomer Sebastién Comerón explained the paradox of a dark matter-deficient galaxy being used as evidence for dark matter.


SpaceX and ESA collaborate on ISS mission featuring advanced german science experiments

https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Spac … s_999.html

On January 18, 2023, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Swedish astronaut, Marcus Wandt, will embark on a pioneering journey to the International Space Station (ISS). This mission, known as Muninn, will mark the first time an ESA astronaut participates in a commercial mission organized by the U.S. launch service provider Axiom, aboard a SpaceX Dragon capsule from NASA's Kennedy Space Center.

Wandt's 14-day mission will be a blend of maintenance work and scientific inquiry, where he is slated to conduct 20 experiments. Of these, half involve German scientific involvement, overseen by the German Space Agency at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This collaboration extends to esteemed German institutions like the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, the Institute of Materials Physics in Space, the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), Charite hospital in Berlin, and the universities of Giessen, Greifswald, and Kiel.

Upon his return to Earth, Wandt will undergo scientific evaluations at DLR's ':envihab' facility in Cologne, an established post-mission tradition for ESA astronauts since Alexander Gerst in 2014. ':envihab', part of the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, is adjacent to the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) and serves as a state-of-the-art research hub for scientific and medical examinations.

CIMON: A New Frontier in AI Assistance in Space
A highlight of Wandt's mission is his interaction with CIMON (Crew Interactive MObile companion), a unique AI-powered assistant developed by Airbus with IBM's Watson AI technology. This represents CIMON's first scientific mission, following successful technology demonstrations with astronauts Gerst, Parmitano, and Maurer. CIMON aims to enhance human-machine interaction on the ISS, with implications for advancements in robotics, education, medicine, and care on Earth.

Innovative Experiments and Studies
Wandt's mission will encompass a wide array of experiments, each addressing different scientific queries:

Bone Health: Investigating the impact of space on bone density, this study, led by the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, seeks to understand bone loss mechanisms, potentially benefiting osteoporosis and spinal injury patients on Earth.

Cardio-Deconditioning: This ESA-led experiment, involving international collaboration, focuses on understanding cardiovascular changes in astronauts using cardiac MRI. Its findings could enhance care for bedridden patients and cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

BRAIN-DTI: Conducted in collaboration with universities in Belgium and LMU, this study explores how the human brain adapts to the unique conditions of space, providing insights into the brain's remarkable adaptive capabilities.

PK-4 Plasma Crystal Experiment: A visual study of atomic-level processes in plasma, this experiment has applications in semiconductor technology, propulsion systems, and medical treatment innovations.

ANITA-2: Monitoring air quality on the ISS, ANITA-2, developed by OHB System AG, offers real-time analysis of cabin air, enhancing astronaut safety and well-being.

Additionally, Wandt will perform maintenance on experiments with German participation, including the DOSIS 3D MINI experiment and preparatory calibrations in the Material Science Laboratory (MSL).

German-Swedish Space Collaboration
The mission also underscores the strong partnership between Germany and Sweden in space exploration, evident in student programs like REXUS/BEXUS, TEXUS, and the MAPHEUS research rocket program. These initiatives, fostering educational and research opportunities, highlight the collaborative spirit driving space exploration today.

Marcus Wandt's mission aboard the SpaceX Dragon capsule, enriched with a suite of German-led scientific experiments, represents not only a new chapter for ESA's involvement in commercial space missions but also a significant contribution to space science. As Wandt prepares for this historic journey, the space community eagerly anticipates the insights and advancements that will emerge from his groundbreaking work aboard the ISS.

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2024-01-18 16:14:39)

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#180 2024-01-29 15:45:03

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,126

Re: Physics Topics

The article at the link below is about a method of generating electricity from heat using magnetic effects.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technolo … 68ab&ei=76

This appears to be a report on some bleeding edge research.

Hopefully someone will post text from the actual article.

(th)

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#181 2024-03-01 21:39:03

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,126

Re: Physics Topics

The article at the link below is about physics at the quantum level.

A surprising behavior of charges was found by a team doing research in chemistry.

It appears that under the right circumstances, electric changes that ordinarily repel each other can experience a small attraction. I don't know that this will ever change anything in the machines made by humans that depend upon reliable attraction and repulsion, but at least we (humans) are now aware of the discrepancy...

https://interestingengineering.com/scie … 01.03.24_1

One of the basic tenets of physics is not universal and can change depending on where these charges and what these charged particles are. That’s exactly what a research team at Oxford University under the leadership of Madhavi Krishnan, a physical chemistry professor, found out.

School textbooks are filled with experiments about opposite charges and their behavior. We know that a positive charge will attract a negative one but repel another positive charge. This basic tenet of physics is used worldwide in various applications and has never been found to be wrong.

SEE ALSO
RELATED
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The strong nuclear force is the glue that holds reality as we know it together

But scientists like to probe things we know work well to the point where they stop working. That’s how new things are discovered and new theories come up. Krishnan’s team wasn’t just up to get science textbooks rewritten; they were looking at interparticle and intermolecular interactions that can explain how chemistry works, and that’s when they made this discovery.

When negative charges attract each other

Krishnan’s team at the Department of Chemistry at Oxford found that negatively charged particles attracted each other when there were large separations between them. Strangely, the same did not apply to positive charges, which were separate, and they continued to repel each other.

To understand this better, the researchers used bright-field microscopy to track negatively charged silica microparticles. These were suspended in water and formed hexagonally arranged clusters by attracting each other. Positive charges didn’t display this behavior.


Using the theory of interparticle interactions, the team considered the solvent structure at the interface of these microparticles. The researchers established an attractive force far greater than the electrostatic repulsion between the particles for negatively charged particles, eventually forming hexagonal clusters.

Images of interparticle interactions studied by the Krishnan Lab at Oxford University. Image credit: Krishnan Lab

Switching behavior of positive charged particles

The team was then keen to know if the behavior of the positive charges could be changed using the knowledge they now had. Since the attraction was based on the solvent where the particles were mixed, the researchers changed the solvent to an alcohol to see if the behavior changed.

In the new solvent, ethanol, the positively charged particles displayed attractive behavior. They formed hexagonal structures, whereas the negatively charged particles did not.

Interestingly, the behavior is also dependent on the pH of the solvent. So, when the team varied the pH of the water they were using, they could control whether the negatively charged particles formed clusters. The behavior of the positively charged particles was immune to the pH change.


The researchers are confident that their findings will cause a shift in how we think about charged particles and their behavior. This can have diverse applications ranging from changes in pharmaceutical formulations and fine chemical products to how molecules come together to cause a disease condition.

In addition to changing some fundamental physics, the research also opens up new avenues, such as determining the interfacial electrical potential of molecules in a solvent and assigning properties such as sign and magnitude to them, something that was considered immeasurable before.

Sida Wand, a graduate student at Oxford University who was involved in the research, has yet to come to terms with her discovery. “I still find it fascinating to see these particles attract, even having seen this a thousand times,” she said in a press release.

The research findings were published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

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(th)

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#182 2024-03-06 15:24:54

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

Plasma oscillations propel breakthroughs in fusion energy

https://phys.org/news/2024-03-plasma-os … usion.html

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#183 2024-03-30 08:55:36

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

Space station detectors spot the source of weird ‘blue jet’ lightning

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/spa … -lightning

New topological metamaterial amplifies sound waves exponentially

https://phys.org/news/2024-03-topologic … ially.html

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2024-03-30 09:17:12)

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#184 2024-04-10 11:54:46

tahanson43206
Moderator
Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 17,126

Re: Physics Topics

This post is to note the passing of Peter Higgs.

https://interestingengineering.com/cult … n=breaking

Peter Higgs, a British theoretical physicist who discovered the Higgs Boson also commonly called the ‘God Particle’ has passed away at the age of 94.

The article includes an attempt to explain why the discovery is important.

(th)

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#185 2024-04-13 14:57:06

Void
Member
Registered: 2011-12-29
Posts: 7,092

Re: Physics Topics

About dark matter, perhaps:
https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technolo … r-BB1lzoa7  Quote:

Tiny black holes left over from the Big Bang may be prime dark matter suspects
Story by Robert Lea • 6h • 6 min read

So, tiny that they cannot absorb a larger particle?  But they can absorb light.  Maybe I have that wrong, they are smaller than a proton it seemed to say.  But maybe they could absorb matter by pulling baryons apart???

Isaac Arthur references the possibility that humans could create small black holes and draw energy from dropping matter into them.

But if there are lots of tiny black holes maybe that answers why Intelligent Aliens don't run interstellar ships.  In a way that would be good for us, as a nasty sort would have a hard time getting to us.

Isaac Arthur has various materials on Black Holes: https://www.bing.com/search?q=Isaac+Art … d=msedgntp

I don't know if we could ever find and capture one of the primordial ones though, and if you could drop matter into it.  Seems like planets should have them inside of them.  How would that work?

Done

Last edited by Void (2024-04-13 15:12:15)


Done.

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#186 2024-04-20 04:23:02

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

a very very small force measured?

perhaps in the fringe category like zero point energy, perpetual motion machine etc

the new particle CERN type or Fusion energy guys at least published stuff among science community before claiming they can be in space and let the community debunk it


NASA Veteran Claims Propellantless Propulsion Breakthrough
https://www.realclearscience.com/2024/0 … 26368.html

'believe their discovery of a fundamental new force'

NASA Veteran’s Propellantless Propulsion Drive That Physics Says Shouldn’t Work Just Produced Enough Thrust to Overcome Earth’s Gravity
https://thedebrief.org/nasa-veterans-pr … s-gravity/

Dr. Charles Buhler, a NASA engineer and the co-founder of Exodus Propulsion Technologies, has revealed that his company’s propellantless propulsion drive, which appears to defy the known laws of physics, has produced enough thrust to counteract Earth’s gravity.

A veteran of such storied programs as NASA’s Space Shuttle, the International Space Station (ISS), The Hubble Telescope, and the current NASA Dust Program, Buhler and his colleagues believe their discovery of a fundamental new force represents a historic breakthrough that will impact space travel for the next millennium.

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2024-04-20 04:24:43)

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#187 2024-04-20 13:58:09

Mars_B4_Moon
Member
Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,267

Re: Physics Topics

The largest stellar mass black hole in the Milky Way so far

Blackhole massive even when compared to the mass of Betelgeuse a red supergiant star in the constellation of Orion,  Betelgeuse t has a mass between 12 and 30 solar masses, the Blackhole is even more massive.

Astronomers have found the largest stellar mass black hole in the Milky Way so far. At 33 solar masses, it dwarfs the previous record-holder, Cygnus X-1, which has only 21 solar masses. Most stellar mass black holes have about 10 solar masses, making the new one—Gaia BH3—a true giant.

'The Milky Way’s Most Massive Stellar Black Hole is Only 2,000 Light Years Away'
https://www.universetoday.com/166669/th … ears-away/

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