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#151 2023-03-07 08:46:03

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

The weird worlds of exotic matter Muon, Kaon, Up Quark or u quark, Mesons and neutral particle oscillations, Charm or Strange Quark or s quark, antiparticle of the strange quark is the strange antiquark sometimes called antistrange quark or simply antistrange, Gluon, Tau Neutrinos, other family Leptons, Gauge Bosons, K-Short and K-Long, the strangelet a hypothetical particle consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, Hadrons composite subatomic particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong interaction other particles are best described as being vibrations of 'superstrings' the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries the gravitational force, but strings abandoned in favor of quantum chromodynamics but then murky madness world of M-Theory the string vibration inside tiny multiple dimensions makes a come back and also the recently looked at Higgs Boson 'God Particle'.

Some would laugh back then and think that schizophrenics are more aware of a String Theory

The Universe May Have Started with a Dark Big Bang
https://www.universetoday.com/160285/th … -big-bang/


But a team of researchers have proposed a new idea. They argue that our inflation and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis eras were not alone. Dark matter may have evolved along a completely separate trajectory. In this scenario when inflation ended it still flooded the universe with particles and radiation. But not dark matter. Instead there was some quantum field remaining that did not decay away. As the universe expanded and cooled, that extra quantum field did eventually transform itself triggering the formation of dark matter.

The Big Bang may have not been alone. The appearance of all the particles and radiation in the universe may have been joined by another Big Bang that flooded our universe with dark matter particles. And we may be able to detect it.

Five Failed Alternatives
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQRIxAEBlts
Vid


LHCb begins using unique approach to process collision data in real-time
https://phys.org/news/2023-03-lhcb-uniq … -time.html
'Current technology does not allow all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proton–proton collision data to be stored and analyzed.'

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2023-03-07 09:01:46)

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#152 2023-03-30 05:06:34

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Fast radio burst linked with gravitational waves for the first time

https://astronomy.com/news/2023/03/fast … first-time

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#153 2023-03-30 05:28:22

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 18,127

Re: Physics Topics

For Mars_B4_Moon re #152


Thanks for finding and posting this report!

SearchTerm:Radio possible link to gravitational waves

(th)

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#154 2023-04-08 17:32:47

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

I normally don't share drama topics but one guy respected in math claims others are 'smoking the ganja' I think our science tv or entertainment world is about to get more 'weird' if it has not already, one name I see pop up is 'Eric' an American hedge fund director and radio podcast host. He is a smart guy and has a PhD in mathematical physics

So here's the thing a lot of Cosmology I personally don't get, sometimes maybe I have a simple childhood understanding of stuff at times maybe I'm not smart enough to get it all and maybe I have my own prejudice I feel most things I need to touch, to bite or feel, to smell and hear or see their chemical effect, I need to look into an engine or look at a visual effect like 'Gravitational Lensing' ...my own bias is I need to see and feel something and not see a conclusion to a math debate or philosophy debate, I have a feeling which in a way is why I am happy to see a Cosmologist call out another Cosmologist but Eric is not a space cosmology guy, he does money and has PhD in mathematical physics . I understand that it can take decades for Special Relativity or Quantum Mechanics to have claims proven but my personal experience with Cosmology is sometimes it is feeling more like a Philosophy than a Real Science.

I am happy to see Cosmology guys ask other Cosmologist people the hard questions, Eric Weinstein understands science but he is not part of this 'Cosmos' fringe club which one day might be confirmed by Hubble, Cern or JWST.

Eric Weinstein even went on the  controversial Joe Rogan Experience who has all kinds of fringe ideas, Eric Weinstein already clashed with Brian Greene about foam and strings, they clash over theories of 'everything' he even claims new theories have poisoned physics he wants to see real results, says science has been directionless going in circles and new theory have been leading people in wrong impractical directions for the past decades. He names 'Edward Witten'  an American mathematical and theoretical physicist, Professor Emeritus in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, a researcher in string theory, quantum gravity, supersymmetric quantum field theories, and other areas of mathematical physics. Witten's work and ideas impacted pure mathematics. The idea of Quantum gravity (QG) field of theoretical physics seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics. It deals with environments in which neither gravitational nor quantum effects can be ignored, such as in the vicinity of black holes or similar compact astrophysical objects, such as neutron stars.
https://web.archive.org/web/20221116151 … ogram.html
,
https://web.archive.org/web/20221115234 … ed-to-glow


However Eric Weinstein also says he will debate an Area 51 Gravity Shield Anti-Gravity guy
https://twitter.com/EricRWeinstein/stat … 1511146496

https://twitter.com/EricRWeinstein/stat … 6637882368

quote

I’m also happy to recommend experts in Quantum Chromodynamics, Nuclear Physics, General Relativity, and Quantum Gravity given that Lazar makes claims that appear to conflate the Strong nuclear force under a Yang-Mills action with the Gravitational force using Einstein-Hilbert.

Bob Lazar is an American UFO conspiracy theorist, he is a self-proclaimed physicist who claims he was hired in the late 1980s to reverse-engineer extraterrestrial technology.

David Jonathan Gross an American theoretical physicist and string theorist with Frank Wilczek and David Politzer, he was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics


'Michio Kaku is out of control! Eric Weinstein on the Joe Rogan Experience'
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O76fjTNGbtI
'70 years of Stagnation with Quantum Gravity'

Sean Michael Carroll an American theoretical physicist and philosopher who specializes in quantum mechanics, cosmology he was with Caltech Department of Physics, and the Homewood Professor of Natural Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University, he calls their science
'Quackery'
implies some kind of witch doctor type dishonest practices, medical or science methods that do not work
I think this is an extreme phrase to use but who knows.

He said resources and intellectual capital of our Earth are wasted on the pursuit of string theory, although he kinda admits he is not an expert but he said there should already be results.

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#155 2023-04-09 12:12:54

Terraformer
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From: The Fortunate Isles
Registered: 2007-08-27
Posts: 3,857
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Re: Physics Topics

Lol. Eric Weinstein. "Intellectual Dark Web" guy? Lost his mind, with the rest of them, if he even had it in the first place. Sad tale, but at least it wasn't the best minds of any generation that got destroyed by madness.

Right about physics going in circles maybe. If it's practical stuff you want, the reach is far exceeding our grasp here. There's still a lot of room for development based on what we already know, save the FTL attempts for Gagarin Station.


Use what is abundant and build to last

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#156 2023-04-27 13:02:09

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Is This a Black Hole or a New Type of Star?

https://www.universetoday.com/161084/is … e-of-star/

Within general relativity, black holes are easy to define. They are objects with an event horizon. This horizon is like a line in the sand, where anything crossing it is forever trapped within the black hole. Quantum theory might allow for energy to escape through Hawking radiation, but classical black holes are a one-way trip.

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#157 2023-05-09 06:50:19

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

LISA Will Be a Remarkable Gravitational-Wave Observatory. But There’s a Way to Make it 100 Times More Powerful
https://www.universetoday.com/161066/li … -powerful/
The first-time detection of Gravitational Waves (GW) by researchers at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015 triggered a revolution in astronomy. This phenomenon consists of ripples in spacetime caused by the merger of massive objects and was predicted a century prior by Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. In the coming years, this burgeoning field will advance considerably thanks to the introduction of next-generation observatories, like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA).
With greater sensitivity, astronomers will be able to trace GW events back to their source and use them to probe the interiors of exotic objects and the laws of physics. As part of their Voyage 2050 planning cycle, the European Space Agency (ESA) is considering mission themes that could be ready by 2050 – including GW astronomy. In a recent paper, researchers from the ESA’s Mission Analysis Section and the University of Glasgow presented a new concept that would build on LISA – known as LISAmax. As they report, this observatory could potentially improve GW sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.
The research was led by theoretical physics Dr. Waldemar Martens, a Mission Analyst at the ESA’s European Space Operations Center (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. He was joined by aerospace engineer and astrophysicist Michael Khan, also a Missions Analyst at the ESOC, and astrophysicist Dr. Jean-Baptiste Bayle, an astronomy and astrophysics Research Fellow with the University of Glasgow. The paper that describes their findings appeared online recently and is currently being reviewed for publication by the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity.

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#158 2023-05-09 17:49:10

tahanson43206
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Posts: 18,127

Re: Physics Topics

For Mars_B4_Moon re #156

Thank you for the link to this report on a major advance under study, in space based gravitational wave observatory concepts!  I was intrigued to learn (for example) that the short baseline of the existing Earth based system cannot pick up events below a certain threshold.  Since this is the Physics topic, I'll add that there is at least one publication of a concept for a truly gigantic  optical observatory, with detectors spread at the limits of the Solar System.  Such a telescope (if every realized) could (theoretically) examine features on the ground of planets in solar systems many light years away.

If faster than light travel proves out of reach for humans, gigantic telescopes  on that scale might allow humans to find life elsewhere, and ordinary radio communications would provide a slow but reliable communications pathway.

(th)

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#159 2023-05-15 04:00:44

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Scientists Find Link Between Photosynthesis and 'Fifth State of Matter'

https://science.slashdot.org/story/23/0 … -of-matter

The findings open up some new possibilities for generating synthetic materials for future technology, said study co-author Prof. David Mazziotti. "A perfect ideal exciton condensate is sensitive and requires a lot of special conditions, but for realistic applications, it's exciting to see something that boosts efficiency but can happen in ambient conditions."

original link

https://phys.org/news/2023-05-scientist … state.html

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#160 2023-05-24 15:52:23

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Gravitational wave detector LIGO is back online after 3 years of upgrades – how the world's most sensitive yardstick reveals secrets of the universe

https://theconversation.com/gravitation … rse-204339

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#161 2023-05-27 05:57:42

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

When Black Holes Merge, They'll Ring Like a Bell

https://www.universetoday.com/161598/wh … ke-a-bell/

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#162 2023-05-30 07:26:16

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

LIGO
https://news.mit.edu/2023/gravitational … g-run-0525
This observing run, known as O4, promises to take gravitational-wave astronomy to the next level. Beginning on May 24 and lasting 20 months, including up to two months of commissioning breaks, O4 will be the most sensitive search yet for gravitational waves. LIGO will resume operations May 24, while Virgo will join later in the year. KAGRA will join for one month, beginning May 24, rejoining later in the run after some upgrades.


That quantum gravity thing


Epic showdown on String Theory with Brian Greene, Eric R Weinstein, Penrose, Tasneem, Zhusain on physics, mathematics, quantum gravity, multiple dimensions & sociology of science on how the string theory community deals with challengers to the theory.

https://twitter.com/michaelshermer/stat … 5574095872

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2023-05-30 07:30:02)

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#163 2023-06-01 03:20:49

Mars_B4_Moon
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Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Scientists' report world's first X-ray of a single atom

https://phys.org/news/2023-05-scientist … -atom.html

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#164 2023-06-07 14:12:50

Mars_B4_Moon
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Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

A simulation of a dying star shows how it could create gravitational waves

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/gra … -supernova

It Might Take Space Telescopes to Finally Resolve the Crisis in Cosmology
https://www.universetoday.com/161779/it … cosmology/
Gravitational wave (GW) observatories have been a great addition to cosmologists’ arsenal in the lack decade. With their first effective detection at the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory completed in 2015, they opened up a whole new world of data collection for scientists. However, so far, they haven’t solved one of the fundamental problems at the heart of their discipline – the “Hubble tension.” Now a new paper discusses the possibility of utilizing a network of new, space-based gravitational wave observatories to get closer than ever to the real value of one of the most important numbers in the Universe.

Anton explains another potential wrinkle in the search for the true Hubble constant – it might not be constant at all.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrW9Nq0MZmQ

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#165 2023-06-09 16:48:20

Mars_B4_Moon
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Re: Physics Topics

Physicists discover an exotic material made of bosons

https://phys.org/news/2023-06-physicist … osons.html

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#166 2023-06-14 18:47:00

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 18,127

Re: Physics Topics

In following the link provided by Mars_B4_Moon in #165, I found a report on discovery of a state of matter at the quantum level ...

https://phys.org/news/2023-06-experimen … ental.html

The work studied a lattice of electrons and holes separated by an atom scale distance ...

This frustration kicks off the novel chiral edge state, which has a number of surprising characteristics. For instance, if you cool quantum matter in a chiral state down to absolute zero, the electrons freeze into a predictable pattern, and the emergent charge-neutral particles in this state will all either spin clockwise or counterclockwise. Even if you smash another particle into one of these electrons, or you introduce a magnetic field, you can't alter its spin—it's surprisingly robust and can even be used to encode digital data in a fault-tolerant way.

It's tantalizing to suppose that this newly discovered state of matter might be harnessed some day, but the work on quantum computers all over the world provides an incentive.

(th)

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#167 2023-06-18 05:25:20

Mars_B4_Moon
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Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

USTC explored gravity's effect on quantum spins

https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/USTC … s_999.html

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#168 2023-06-18 06:31:23

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
Posts: 18,127

Re: Physics Topics

In following the link provided by Mars_B4_Moon, about study of gravity and quantum spin, I found another article that caught my eye:

https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Phot … n_999.html

The meticulous research reported is similar to the quantum vs gravity study, in that the researchers were working with individual particles.  In this case, they were working with individual photos, although a lot of them were used in the study.

Details that popped out included:

An estimate that only 1000 solar photons reach an individual chlorophyll molecule in a period of time (which I've already forgotten).

Photons that initiate the photosynthetic reaction are 800 nanometers in wavelength, and the photon emitted after energy is transferred to an electron is 850 nanometers.

I deduce that the entire web of life on Earth arises from that tiny transfer of energy.

The electron set into motion by the single photon triggers a chain of events that lead to formation of simple sugar molecules.

After all, the sun doesn't provide that many photons - only a thousand photons arrive at a single chlorophyll molecule per second on a sunny day - yet the process occurs reliably across the planet.

That was still a question that needed to be answered in detail," said co-lead author Graham Fleming, a senior faculty scientist in the Biosciences Area at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley.

In their study, Fleming, co-lead author Birgitta Whaley, a senior faculty scientist in the Energy Sciences Area at Berkeley Lab, and their research groups showed that a single photon can indeed initiate the first step of photosynthesis in photosynthetic purple bacteria.

(th)

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#169 2023-06-23 06:00:12

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

New calculations suggest that anything with gravity—meaning basically every object in the universe—will emit black-hole-like radiation and evaporate

https://twitter.com/laurahelmuth/status … 9507211267

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#170 2023-06-25 02:05:27

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

strange linear filaments around the galactic center?

Thousands Of Structures Found In Space Baffles Scientists
https://www.giantfreakinrobot.com/sci/s … y-way.html

Paper on a possibility an outflow from material being eaten by the black hole in the center of the milky way

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3 … cd54b/meta

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#171 2023-06-29 08:44:10

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

Gravity Waves or a Graviton might not be the realm of scifi after all.  From the theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical quantum of gravity, an elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitational interaction. If it exists, the graviton is expected to be massless because the gravitational force has a very long range. Like the force carriers of the other forces  such as the  photon, gluon, the wave or particle of gravitation also plays a role in general relativity, in defining the spacetime in which cosmological events take place. The gravitational wave is an invisible and incredibly fast ripple in space time. Gravitational Waves are predicted to squeeze and stretch anything in their path as they pass by.


Scientists have finally 'heard' the chorus of gravitational waves that ripple through the universe

https://apnews.com/article/gravitationa … 2baf7f818a

15 Years of Radio Data Reveals Evidence of Space-Time Murmur

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/15-years- … ime-murmur

Scientists find Key Evidence for existence of nanohertz gravitational waves

https://phys.org/news/2023-06-scientist … ional.html

The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) will be making a major announcement during a live-streamed event!

This is in coordination with results being released by other PTAs around the globe.

https://nanograv.org/news/2023Announcement

The announcement will be broadcast live on YouTube from the National Science Foundation (NSF), and will report on NANOGrav’s ongoing search for low-frequency gravitational waves.

Last edited by Mars_B4_Moon (2023-06-29 08:52:30)

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#172 2023-06-30 16:15:11

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
Posts: 9,774

Re: Physics Topics

IceCube Makes a Neutrino Map of the Milky Way

https://www.universetoday.com/162239/ic … milky-way/

We’ve seen the Milky Way with ultraviolet eyes, through x-ray vision, gamma-ray views, radio emissions, microwaves, and visible light. Now, consider a neutrino point of view. Thanks to the IceCube Collaboration, we get to see our home galaxy through the lens of this mysterious particle.

It’s an eerie sight that also tells us our galaxy isn’t quite like the others. It’s a neutrino desert.

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#173 2023-09-05 10:32:27

Mars_B4_Moon
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Registered: 2006-03-23
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Re: Physics Topics

The Large Hadron Collider Is Producing Hypernuclei And Antihypernuclei
https://www.iflscience.com/the-large-ha … clei-70476
The creation, however brief, of these unusual collections of particles could explain their presence in space and help us understand the internal workings of neutron stars and seek dark matter.

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#174 2023-11-07 12:42:53

Mars_B4_Moon
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Re: Physics Topics

Three-Body Tethered Satellite System Deploys Successfully in Simulations

https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Thre … s_999.html

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#175 2023-11-21 10:06:52

tahanson43206
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Re: Physics Topics

This is pure physics ... shock patterns in SpaceX Heavy Booster launch ...

https://www.yahoo.com/news/starships-33 … 06508.html

THE WARZONE
Starship's 33 Engines Created The Mother Of All 'Shock Diamonds'

Oliver Parken
Mon, November 20, 2023 at 8:27 PM EST·7 min read

Shock diamonds from Starship's rocket exhaust

SpaceX’s massive Starship rocket lifted off for its second test flight over the weekend. Among the stunning imagery and video to have emerged from the launch that caught our attention was the sight of its super-heavy rocket booster generating gargantuan "mach diamonds" or "shock diamonds." What’s particularly impressive is how the rocket booster’s 33 Raptor engines combined to create a perfectly formed mach diamond as the stack lifted off the pad.

Given how incredible this example of physics visualized on a grand scale looks in the photos, we thought it was an opportune moment to dig deeper into the science behind them, as well as explain what makes their unique appearance during the recent Starship test launch so intriguing.

https://twitter.com/johnkrausphotos/sta … 5276195266

The 'Starship' system, comprised of a super-heavy rocket booster and spacecraft, took off from SpaceX’s Starbase facility near Boca Chica Beach in South Texas on November 18. In a significant development for SpaceX, and in comparison to the first Starship test launch in April, the rocket booster was successfully able to separate from the spacecraft. This was before the rocket booster exploded over the Gulf of Mexico at an altitude of 91 miles (148 kilometers). Moreover, contact was lost with the spacecraft after it reached space, with the company having to trigger its self-destruct feature shortly thereafter. Eventually, Space X intends for its Starship system to carry crew and cargo to Earth orbit, the Moon, Mars and beyond.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iv5AMNYGql4 https://twitter.com/SpaceX/status/17258 … 50297?s=20

https://twitter.com/SpaceX/status/17263 … 25050?s=20

While mach diamonds are more commonly seen when high-performance jets are in afterburner, Starships’ case is a unique as this phenomena was the culmination of 33 rocket engines firing in unison.

SR-71B seen during takeoff in 1992 with mach diamonds to its exhaust plume. <em>NASA </em>

F-16 in full afterburner, a string of shock diamonds emanating from its F100 turbofan. <em>Tech. Sgt. Caycee Cook</em>/<em>USAF</em>

F-16 in full afterburner, a string of shock diamonds emanating from its F100 turbofan. Tech. Sgt. Caycee Cook/USAF

Its super-heavy rocket booster's 33 engines includes 13 in the center and 20 surrounding the perimeter of the booster’s business end. Burning methane with liquid oxygen, the rocket booster is capable of creating a mind-boggling 16.7 million pounds of thrust, more than double the power of NASA’s Apollo-era Saturn V super-heavy rocket.

Starship rocket booster's 33 Raptor Vaccum engines. <em>SpaceX via X/Twitter</em>

In order to understand how the shock diamonds were produced during the Starship launch, we reached out to Dr. Chris Combs (@DrChrisCombs), the Dee Howard endowed assistant professor of aerodynamics at the University of Texas at San Antonio’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Combs began by explaining how mach diamonds are formed in detail:

"Nature is always wanting to bring things back to equilibrium, in a sense, [to] kind of get things back to the way that they were in how they started," he said. "There are a lot of different processes in nature that work that way, and pressure differences is one of those."

"When you have something like a rocket, or a jet engine, that creates these really massive pressure differentials, relative to atmospheric air… physics is going to want to change that, and it's going to want to match those values up somehow. And if the pressure differentials are large enough, the only way that that can happen is with a shock wave or an expansion fan. And so these are compressible flow features, and waves that show up when basically you have a very large imbalance of pressure between two masses of air."

Schematic illustrating exhaust efficiency for rocket nozzles. <em>Thomas van t Klooster</em>

"At sea level, when you have a rocket launch, the exhaust that's coming out of the rocket is lower than atmospheric pressure… [resulting in] very high chamber pressures. But then you actually expand that gas through a converging divergent nozzle, to accelerate it to very high speed, because that gives you thrust. So you're trying to accelerate that exhaust as fast as you can. And when you do that, the energy that was there in terms of pressure, gets… transferred to velocity and momentum. And so you're getting that thrust out, but you're losing pressure in the process. So that gas comes out lower than atmospheric pressure, when it comes out of rocket exhausts. And it's low enough where… the only way that that can be matched to atmospheric pressure is with a shockwave, and so the air gets processed through the shockwave."

"The reason you see a diamond pattern," he indicated, "is because the angle of that shockwave is going to be determined, really just by [the] pressure ratio."

Combs went on to explain why Starships’ 33 Raptor engines were capable of forming single mach diamonds during the launch.

"When you typically see a shock diamond or a mach diamond, it can be from like a jet engine test, or a single rocket nozzle test. [When you] look at those up close… you see the same shock diamond effect on the smaller scale."

"But what was interesting, specifically about this case [the second Starship launch], is you had 33 engines firing together, which you would kind of intuitively think would make for a pretty messy environment. I think close up [this] is probably true, there's some complicated dynamics happening there."

https://twitter.com/DrChrisCombs/status … 74003?s=20

"[When] you zoom out far enough, and really, what it boils down to is they're [the 33 engines, are] acting like one engine. And so you have a region of low pressure caused by all of these engines working together. And that forms this larger mach diamond structure, sort of in the far field, as you zoom out. So you have all these little mini mach diamonds from each one of those engines that's generated… That is especially unique, because there aren't very many rockets… that tried to function with this many rocket nozzles pack that closely together… the closest comp[arison] being the Soviet N1."

Soviet N1 Rocket showing the 30 rocket engines of its first stage. <em>Unknown author</em>

It should be noted that images taken from the launch also show additional diamonds forming a string, which can be seen below. "What you will notice, if you watch a rocket launch, as that rocket goes up in the air… [is] that angle is going to slowly change over time," Combs noted.

Multiple, individual mach diamonds seen during Starship's launch. <em>SpaceX via X/Twitter</em>

"And it's actually going to slowly go basically towards parallel with the rocket body. As the rocket goes up, that atmospheric pressure is going to drop because you're going higher up in altitude. And so that shock angle gets thinner as the rocket goes up until eventually the rocket exhaust is just going straight up and down, and you don't see any type of diamond effect. And that's… what we call a perfectly expanded exhaust. Because… the exhaust pressure is exactly what the ambient pressure is outside."

During our exchange, Combs also urged people to think of the recent test, which has been reported by some outlets as a failure, more holistically.

"I think people get frustrated sometimes when I say it's a long ways away," he noted of Starship. "But you have to understand… this is a relatively immature technology right now, that's going to take years to figure out versus [if] it's never going to work. I don't necessarily think it's never going to work. I think that there are some really big hurdles that those engineers have to overcome. And it's going to take time. So I think people need to kind of level expectations a little bit, but it's definitely an interesting project to follow that's extremely ambitious and high risk."

So there you have it, an in-depth look at the gargantuan shock diamonds and why their merged appearance during Starship’s second test flight is so unique. A special thanks to Dr. Chris Combs for taking the time to provide us with such wonderful insight on this topic.

Contact the author: oliver@thewarzone.com

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