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#451 2018-11-27 20:47:36

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
Registered: 2004-07-22
Posts: 17,778

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Oh no ISS Toilet Swarmed By 'Space Bugs'
Analysis has shown that all five strains of the mysterious bacterium found on the space station belonged to one species, called Enterobacter bugandensis. The samples of the microbes were taken from a toilet and an exercise area on the space station.

iss-space-toilet-russian-design-hg.jpg

The next space x flight is schedueled for Jan. 7 date set for first SpaceX unmanned capsule to International Space Station This is the Crew Dragon's commercial flight will be known as Demo-1 or DM-1 only with no one on board.

art-spacex-crew-dragon-docking-iss-hg.jpg

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#452 2018-11-28 16:01:27

Void
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Registered: 2011-12-29
Posts: 3,011

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

I guess I will post this here, of course the moderators can move it if they feel it has a better home somewhere else.
https://www.wbvreviewed.com/product/tectonic-m2/

The one I use at my gym is "VMAX" didn't find it yet.

Quote:

G-Force (G)

A multiplier for gravity. The total force that the body is subject to on every up cycle of the platform. Measured in Gs

The one I use rocks back and fourth.  I so far have only used it standing, but you can put your hands on the plate in a kneeling position to do the upper body.

I find that a setting of 10 is good, providing I do not have a full bladder. (TMI).  A female attendant told me that it makes her feel like needing to do a BM. (TMI)  Not me.

So standing on it, it rocks left to right and back again, in very rapid sequence.

It is supposed to be good for bone strength, and certain muscles, as your fine tuning muscles seem to rapidly try to compensate for the shaking.  It is also good for the lymphatic system reportedly, which is associated with dealing with certain toxins, and infections.

For Micro-Gravity, and Lunar Gravity, I would expect you need foot stirrups, and hand holds, and likely if you are putting your hands on it you must secure your legs on some frame I would expect.  For Mars, likely similar options needed.

Such a device may be helpful to keep humans healthy in space.

The device is reportedly good for senior citizens, who actually do experience some of the symptoms similar to the drawbacks of low gravity.

Done.

Last edited by Void (2018-11-28 16:07:48)


I like people who criticize angels dancing on a pinhead.  I also like it when angels dance on my pinhead.

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#453 2018-11-28 19:01:09

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

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#454 2018-11-29 20:29:58

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Soon to depart on a falcon will be a dragon on dec 4. SpaceX to carry more than 20 new experiments to ISS

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#455 2018-12-15 19:49:51

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

SpaceX makes another space station cargo delivery

Dt7luVQW4AEqHiJ.jpg

A commercial supply ship owned and operated by SpaceX arrived at the International Space Station on Saturday, delivering a pair of NASA experiments to demonstrate satellite refueling techniques and monitor changes in Earth’s forests, along with a special holiday menu of turkey, candied yams, cranberry sauce and shortbread cookies. It will supply the space station with 5,673 pounds (2,573 kilograms) of provisions and experiments.

Nice that they will enjoy Christmas...

In addition to the biological experiments stowed inside the Dragon’s internal compartment, the spaceship’s rear cargo bay contains a pair of NASA payloads to be mounted outside the space station. One will demonstrate new tools and techniques that could lead to a future capability to refuel satellites with cryogenic propellants in space, and another will scan the planet with a laser to measure the height, density and structure of forest canopies, data that could tell scientists more about the role of forests in the carbon cycle.

The station’s robotic arm and two-armed Dextre robotic handyman will extract each payload package from Dragon’s trunk and move them to locations outside the station.

NASA’s Robotic Refueling Mission 3, or RRM3, will demonstrate the transfer of super-cold, cryogenic fuel in space for the first time. The RRM3 package will be attached to an experiment platform on the station’s port-side truss for a two-year series of experiments.

“Spacecraft are limited to the fuel they carry on-board,” said Hsiao Smith, a deputy director of NASA’s Satellite Servicing Projects Division responsible for technical matters. “In order to further space exploration, refueling spacecraft is a necessity. RRM3 will demonstrate the first transfer of liquid methane, which is a type of cryogenic fluid, in the microgravity of space. Cryogenic fluid can serve as a powerful fuel.”

Nice finally a fuel transfer technology....

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#456 2018-12-24 18:30:49

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Now is the time to get the bottom of the hole and the whole truth as to why.

Russian investigators probe mysterious hole in International Space Station capsule

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#457 2018-12-25 17:13:57

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Research into radiation protection is a must for anyone that leaves the influence of Earths protective sphere.
Finding ways to protect crews from the effects of space radiation

The Perfect Crystals experiment flew to the orbiting laboratory on SpaceX's 16th commercial resupply mission (CRS-16), and is led by principal investigator Gloria Borgstahl, lab technician William Lutz, and doctoral graduate student Jahaun Azadmanesh from the University of Nebraska Medical Center. A new experiment aboard the International Space Station, The Growth of Large, Perfect Protein Crystals for Neutron Crystallography (Perfect Crystals) study, aims to help scientists find a way to deal with the problem using a protein that is already at work in our bodies.

Exposure to space radiation can create dangerous chemical compounds in the body called reactive oxygen species (ROS).

"Radiation from space is a big problem - especially for crew members," said Azadmanesh. "ROS damages our DNA and contributes to the development of many diseases here on Earth, including heart disease and cancer."

This serious health threat means NASA must devise ways to protect astronauts from radiation. Figuring out how to deal with the damage from ROS could also help scientists treat and prevent cancers back on our planet.

The answer may come from the way our bodies already deal with the low-level radiation that sneaks through our atmosphere and reaches us on Earth. The protection is provided by a naturally-occurring protein in our cells called manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which breaks ROS down into more benign substances the body can safely process.

"Everyone on Earth is constantly bombarded with solar radiation, and superoxide dismutase helps us deal with that," said Lutz. "Since NASA is dedicated to traveling to the Moon and Mars, we are hoping to help find a way to protect astronauts from this harmful radiation, and we think superoxide dismutase could help."

The first step is finding out how MnSOD works - all the way down to its atoms. The method the team wants to use to study the atomic structure of MnSOD is a very powerful technique called crystallography. To use crystallography, researchers must employ liquid chemistry to get molecules of MnSOD to stack themselves in a very uniform way, like bricks in a wall, until they form crystals that are similar to a grain of salt. They can then take the crystals into a special laboratory, where they expose them to intense blasts of neutrons and track how the neutrons bounce off them using surrounding detectors. The way the crystals diffract the neutrons could tell researchers a lot about the shape and position of atoms in the stacks of MnSOD, providing clues about how it functions.

The problem is that growing proteins into crystals that are large and uniform is difficult to do on Earth. Vibrations from machines, the presence of impurities, and even gravity can interfere with how well crystals grow. Consequently, an imperfection in a crystal, such as a speck of dust or molecules that are stacked in a sloppy way, can throw off how a crystal bends the paths of neutrons, yielding inconclusive results.

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#458 2019-01-24 19:26:00

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

I think that the immune system needs a check to get balance back and that is artifical gravity but here is the article Prolonged spaceflight could weaken astronauts' immune systems

"What NASA and other space agencies are concerned about is whether or not the immune system is going to be compromised during very prolonged spaceflight missions,"

"Cancer is a big risk to astronauts during very prolonged spaceflight missions because of the exposure to radiation," Simpson said.

"[NK-cells] are also very important to kill off virally infected cells. When you're in the space station, it's a very sterile environment - you're not likely to pick up the flu or a rhinovirus or some community-type infection - but the infections that are a problem are the viruses that are already in your body. These are mostly viruses that cause things like shingles, mononucleosis or cold sores; they stay in your body for the rest of your life, and they do reactivate when you're stressed."

Scientists compared blood samples of eight crewmembers who completed missions to the International Space Station with healthy individuals who remained on Earth. Blood samples were taken before launch, at several points during the mission and after the astronauts' return to Earth.

The results showed that NK-cell function is impaired in astronauts as compared with pre-flight levels and ground-based controls. At flight day 90, NK-cell cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells in vitro was reduced by approximately 50 percent in International Space Station crew members.

Then do something which can be varified..

http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00761.2018

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#459 2019-01-27 18:39:47

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

With all the years and science investigation we still seem to be risk adverted or is there still a few more boxed to check off before man can go as Brain condition related to long-term spaceflights needs more attention, data

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#460 2019-02-05 18:35:16

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Not sure if we have a janitor or a plumber onboard but the station has a leak.... Over 10 Liters of Water Leaked From Space Toilet at US Segment at ISS

The crew had to collect the water using towels,"

hopefully it was clean water...

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#461 2019-02-16 14:28:42

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

The twin experiment have been quite useful but is incomplete.

Year in Space Put US Astronaut's Disease Defenses on Alert

Scientists find that astronaut who spent nearly a year in space had his immune system go on high alert.

?url=http%3A%2F%2Fcom-usnews-beam-media.s3.amazonaws.com%2F32%2F5ce4e123bc1d648782b809d92e9328%2Fmedia%3A49acfc249b5b4e01b31740a0c84c88f7NASA_Twins_Health_92414.jpg

Typically they're in space about six months at a time. Kelly, who lived on the International Space Station, spent 340 days in space and set a U.S. record. "I've never felt completely normal in space," the now-retired Kelly said in an email to The Associated Press, citing the usual congestion from shifting fluid, headaches and difficulty concentrating from extra carbon dioxide, and digestive complaints from microgravity.

A number of genes connected to the immune system became hyperactive, Mason said. It's not a change in DNA but in what's called "gene expression," how genes turn off and on and increase or decrease their production of proteins. Mason also spotted a spike in the bloodstream of another marker that primes the immune system. Yet at the same time, Kelly's blood showed fewer of another cell type that's an early defense against viruses.

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#462 2019-02-20 20:12:31

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Well its taken Nasa long enough when you consider that the analog sites have focussed on this aspect.
Space behaviour focus of Expedition 58

The three astronauts from Expedition 58 living in space worked on experiments about how time perception and their biological clocks might change in space.

Space rhythm and time
Our bodies know roughly what time of day it is, making us feel sleepy at night. Astronauts experience 16 sunrises and sunsets every day on the International Space Station as it circles Earth, making it a unique place to study how their biological clocks cope.

Long-duration spaceflights probably affect the inner clock in humans due to changes of living in light-dark cycle that does not correspond with the 24-hours of a day on Earth.

NASA astronaut Anne McClain completed her third session for the Circadian Rhythms experiment that is investigating this phenomenon. For 36 hours, she wore two sensors strapped to her forehead and chest to monitor body temperature. The experiment will also measure her melatonin levels, a hormone linked to sleep.

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#463 2019-03-18 20:07:36

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Dormant viruses activate during spaceflight -- NASA investigates

Herpes viruses reactivate in more than half of crew aboard Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions, according to NASA research published in Frontiers in Microbiology. While only a small proportion develop symptoms, virus reactivation rates increase with spaceflight duration and could present a significant health risk on missions to Mars and beyond.

NASA's rapid viral detection systems and ongoing treatment research are beginning to safeguard astronauts - and immunocompromised patients on Earth, too.

"To date, 47 out of 89 (53%) astronauts on short space shuttle flights, and 14 out of 23 (61%) on longer ISS missions shed herpes viruses in their saliva or urine samples," reports Mehta. "These frequencies - as well as the quantity - of viral shedding are markedly higher than in samples from before or after flight, or from matched healthy controls."

Overall, four of the eight known human herpes viruses were detected. These include the varieties responsible for oral and genital herpes (HSV), chickenpox and shingles (VZV) - which remain lifelong in our nerve cells - as well as CMV and EBV, which take permanent but uneventful residence in our immune cells during childhood. CMV and EBV, are two viruses associated with causing different strains of mononucleosis or the "kissing disease"

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#464 2019-04-13 16:05:18

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

The twin study is not over and Nasa is still learning more about the changes we under go in LEO at microgravity levels.
Full findings from NASA ‘Twins Study’ raise more questions about long stints in space

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#465 2019-04-14 09:41:11

GW Johnson
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From: McGregor, Texas USA
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

The problems found so far with long-duration spaceflight essentially divide into two categories:  (1) problems caused by radiation exposure,  and (2) problems caused by zero-gravity exposure. 

You "fix" this by providing adequate radiation shielding,  and by providing artificial gravity (spin gravity).  What could be simpler?  Just how stupid is it not to face this and deal with it?

You can delete the radiation shielding in LEO because you are still protected by the magnetosphere,  even though the protective atmosphere is absent.  You cannot do that beyond the magnetosphere because of higher exposure to the drizzle of GCR and the erratic,  occasional blast of solar flare events.  If you orbit at low to zero inclination,  you can even stay out of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

We deleted shielding on Apollo-to-the-moon,  betting instead that the short duration of the missions would reduce the probability of overdose.  The record demonstrates that approach to be a bad bet,  because there was a mild flare event during one Apollo moon mission,  and a quite-lethal one between two of the Apollo missions to the moon. 

The lesson in a word:  do the shielding if you fly beyond LEO. 

We know the spin limit already for long-term spin gravity:  about 4 rpm.  At that 4 rpm,  a spin radius of 56 m gets you one full gee of spin gravity.  Physics says that spin gravity level is proportional to spin rate squared,  and linearly proportional to spin radius. 

We don't yet have a definite figure for how long a zero-gee exposure can be medically tolerated,  but we do suspect that the effects build up toward irreversibility at a bit over a year,  or so the data seem to suggest.  This was determined under the constraint of only-4 gee reentries after microgravity weakening.  Higher-gee entries will shorten that interval,  by some as-yet unknown amount.

The only thing we don't know,  even after over half a century of spaceflight,  is how much gravity is actually therapeutic enough (likely we don't need one full gee).

THAT lesson in a word:  provide spin gravity for long-term (6 months to a year or more) missions terminating in 4-gee entries,  at near the 1-gee level,  until you know "for sure" what lower gee level is therapeutic enough.  Shorten the criterion interval if terminating entry is at higher gee.  For shorter exposures than this gee-variable criterion,  zero-gee is fine.

There,  that's my analog to the Red Baron's very pertinent advice from WW1:  "Find the enemy and shoot him down.  All else is bullshit."  Did I not cut to the very heart of the space travel health maintenance problem?

GW

Last edited by GW Johnson (2019-04-14 09:46:02)


GW Johnson
McGregor,  Texas

"There is nothing as expensive as a dead crew,  especially one dead from a bad management decision"

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#466 2019-04-16 04:31:41

elderflower
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

You did, GW, as regards the physical health of the people.
I would add nutrition into the mix, as this becomes increasingly important with longer flights.
We will also have psychological effects to deal with, and these may be quite difficult. Fortunately we have long earth surface expeditions that we can use as a guide. However nobody will be able to leave the ship and walk around to work off some steam. Cabin fever is real.

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#467 2019-04-16 07:18:37

tahanson43206
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Registered: 2018-04-27
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

For elderflower, with a nod to Louis

In a recent post in another topic, Louis suggested sending an expedition of six people split into two sets of three.

I'd have to go back to look to be sure, but I ** think ** the proposal was in the context of spinning the capsules on the flight to Mars.

However, I'd like to offer an extension of the idea, which I've been considering for some time ...

Each traveler could have his or her own capsule.

By distributing the mass to be spun over a great number of sectors, the physics problem of achieving stability would be reduced.

Movement of electronic signals between the capsules could be wireless or wired.

Movement of objects (such as hot meals or books to share) between capsules could be done with cable runs along the spokes of the spinning structure.

Edit ... quaint thought, that physical books might be included in the manifest.  However, other physical objects (such as tools) might be shared via cable run.

Social interaction via video and audio could be as frequent or as rare as might be preferred.

In particular, assuming national interests are at play, each capsule could have a national identity or "flavor", so that concerns about funding could be distributed over the cost of individual capsules, while a fund for central mission expenses could be shared.

This gets to a comment made by SpaceNut quite recently, about an ISS-like sharing for a space force.

Sharing in an expedition in this way could be a way for nations to participate, much as many have done over the years with ISS projects, and probes.

(th)

elderflower wrote:

You did, GW, as regards the physical health of the people.
I would add nutrition into the mix, as this becomes increasingly important with longer flights.
We will also have psychological effects to deal with, and these may be quite difficult. Fortunately we have long earth surface expeditions that we can use as a guide. However nobody will be able to leave the ship and walk around to work off some steam. Cabin fever is real.

Last edited by tahanson43206 (2019-04-16 07:25:17)

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#468 2019-04-16 17:00:35

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

That is something (Space Force) which we have from the inception of the astronaut corpe been pretty much on pace with as the members were former and active military personnel which have gone before and are part of every crew since on both sides or the partner cooperation accord. Its new members that will indeed need vetting to assure safety at all times. As we move away from LEO. One thing about the ISS is what I would call a proving ground for these new members so that when the time is needed we will have safety in numbers as we journey further from earth.

Now for AG spin shape , mass distribution and length as well as diameter are all important as to keeping it stable.

.

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#469 2019-04-30 19:07:46

SpaceNut
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

The Iss is getting an upgrade for life support but I would not call it food.

Photobioreactor: oxygen and a source of nutrition for astronauts

photobioreactor-infographic-hg.jpg

It does look some what like the current units at least for some of its components.

The Life Support Rack (LSR) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has been on the ISS since October 2018. The rack, which was built by Airbus and was formerly known as the ACLS (Advanced Closed Loop System), collects the carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaled by the astronauts and uses a Sabatier process to convert this back into oxygen by means of electrolysis. The ISS experiment 'PBR@LSR' is a technology demonstration designed to convert CO2 into oxygen and biomass. To achieve this, the PBR will be connected to the LSR physicochemical system (hybrid approach) and operated for up to 180 days, during which time the stability and performance of the system and the algae culture will be recorded and evaluated.

The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae was selected as the photosynthesiser, which is already being used as a food (supplement), as it is very rich in protein. In future, some 30% of the astronauts' food could be replaced by this algal biomass.

The CO2 required is, for the most part, to be supplied by the LSR. In the event that no CO2 is available, the algae can also be supplied with the CO2 it needs from a bottle carried on board. The algae is fed with a nutrient solution every 14 days, while at the same time being thinned out to allow new algae space to grow. Once the experiment is complete, the performance and life cycles of the culture will be evaluated, with several samples sent back to Earth for genetic analysis.


On another note for redundancy as in power sources. International Space Station suffers partial power loss, no danger to crew

Astronauts on the International Space Station are working to restore full power after a partial failure in the orbiting laboratory's electrical system Monday morning that imposed no danger to the crew, NASA said in a press release.

"Monday morning, teams identified an issue with the International Space Station's electrical power system and are working to identify the root cause and restore full power to the system," the release said on Monday afternoon. "There are no immediate concerns for the crew or the station."

During repairs to two of eight channels on a power bus that distributes electricity throughout the space station, flight controllers have been working to route power through the six remaining channels

At this point any resupply mission should not be effected.

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#470 2019-06-05 18:59:30

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Another successful Dragon cargo to the station has come to another successful landing....
Space x Dragon Returns Home

SpaceX just wrapped up yet another successfully resupply mission for NASA, dropping off a whopping 5,500 pounds of supplies for the scientists aboard the International Space Station and then returning back to Earth for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.

The SpaceX Dragon spacecraft safely splashed down in the Pacific Ocean Tuesday, winding up a three-week mission to resupply the International Space Station.. The SpaceX Dragon spacecraft uses parachutes to to aid in its splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. (Photo: SpaceX) Dragon returned to Earth at 12:34 p.m. EDT a few hundred miles west of Baja California.

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#471 2019-06-23 20:20:30

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Posts: 17,778

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

Its sad that Nasa has taken so long to get this going NASA seeks proposals for commercial ISS modules

ixion-dec2017.jpg

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#472 2019-07-04 19:49:36

SpaceNut
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From: New Hampshire
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Posts: 17,778

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

It was nearly a decade ago that the US with its final shuttle said that we had finish building the station but the same did not hold true for the partners. Even with new parts the station is limited in its life expectancy to no more than 2028 unless modules are replaced to keep it afloat.

Russia pressing forward on ISS expansion

After a few more units Russia was looking to depart ways but since 2017 that has changed

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#473 2019-07-05 00:07:39

RobertDyck
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From: Winnipeg, Canada
Registered: 2002-08-20
Posts: 5,878
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Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

When America said it plans to de-orbit ISS, Russia said they would separate their portion, keep it in orbit. The only reason they were talking about departing was America's plan to decommission it.

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#474 2019-07-05 11:04:17

SpaceNut
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Posts: 17,778

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

The moving target of when the ISS should be mothballed and disposed of but that is the problem with what Nasa has always done. It does limit life expectancy on every thing it does.

2009
https://www.universetoday.com/24451/rus … s-to-2020/

http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/ISS_e … s_999.html

https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/file … final3.pdf


EDit:
New topic created Redux of ISS If we could

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#475 2019-07-13 09:21:38

SpaceNut
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Posts: 17,778

Re: International Space Station (ISS / Alpha)

With the purchase of ATK orbitals last year Northrop Grumman is picking up its pace of using the Cygnus launchings to piggy back other missions

Spaceflight to launch multiple spacecraft from ISS via Cygnus

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